A complete Database of Medicinal & Aromatic Plants of Jammu & Kashmir


Botanical Name Vernicular Name Family Habit

Major Chemical Components

Ethno-Medical/Pharmacological Uses Image Reference
Achillea millefolium L. Berguer, Berum, Pahal gasse, Biranjasif, Puthkanda, Monudnu Asteraceae Herb Chamazulene, Sabinene, 1,8-Gineole, Borneol, Bornyl acetate, α −Pinene, β −Pinene, Terpinine-4-ol (Lakshmi et al., 2011) Paste of extract mixed with corn flour is applied to heal the bruises of snakebite. Fever, Toothache, Dysentery, Gastritis, Liver diseases, Snake bite, Cold, Anti Inflammatory, Anti pyretic, Hemostat, Remove abdominal worms. Fresh leaves are chewed o cure the tooth ache.

Achillea millefolium

Lakshmi, T., Geetha, R.V., Roy, A., Aravind, K.S., 2011. Yarrow (Achillea millefolium Linn.): A herbal medicinal plant with broad therapeutic use −a review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research 2011, 136–141.
Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf ex Holmes Patress Ranunculaceae Herb NA Analgesic, diaphoretic, diuretic, sedative. Dried powder of the roots is taken in small quantity to cure neuralgical problem and rheumatism.

Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf ex Holmes

Jaiswal, Y., Liang, Z., Yong, P., Chen, H., Zhao, Z., 2013. A comparative study on the traditional Indian Shodhana and Chinese processing methods for aconite roots by characterization and determination of the major components. Chemistry Central Journal 7, 169–183.
Aconitum deinorrhizum NA Ranunculaceae Herb NA NA

Aconitum deinorrhizum

NA
Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle Atis, Pateess, Paewakh Ranunculaceae Herb Aconitic acid, Aconitine, Tannic acid, Glycerides (Oleic, Palmitic and Stearic acids), Indacotinine, Mesaconitine, Hypaconitine (Jaiswal et al., 2013) A semi liquid lotion made from fine powder of rhizome with a few drops of mustard oil is massaged externally on the forehead and chest to treat headache and cough. Abdominal disorders, Cough, Fever, Dysentery, Inflammation, Arthritis, Diabetes, Gastric disorders, Headache, Impotency, Piles, Skin problems, Spleen enlargement, Urinary infection, Vomiting. Powdered roots in small doses is taken for diarrhoea, fever and dysentery. It is also used to cure enlargement of spleen.

Aconitum heterophyllum

Jaiswal, Y., Liang, Z., Yong, P., Chen, H., Zhao, Z., 2013. A comparative study on the traditional Indian Shodhana and Chinese processing methods for aconite roots by characterization and determination of the major components. Chemistry Central Journal 7, 169–183.
Aconitum violaceum Jacq. ex Stapf Jhimba, Bishmool, Mori Ranunculaceae Herb Aconitine, Aconine, Sparteine, Benzoic acid, Resins Tannins, Indacotinine, Aconitic (Rana et al., 2010) Toothache, Cold, Cough, Fever, Liver and stomach problems, Burns, Joint pains. A small amount of the root is mixed with oil and applied on gums and teeth to cure toothache. Aconitum violaceum Jacq.

Rana, C.S., Sharma, A., Kumar, N., Dangwal, L.R., Tiwari, J.K., 2010. Ethnopharmacology of Some Important Medicinal Plants of Nanda Devi National Park (NDNP) Uttarakhand, India. Nature and Science 8, 9–14.

Aslam, M.S. and Ahmad, M.S., 2016. Analgesic and antiinflammatory activity of genus Aconitum: A phytochemical and ethnopharmacological review. Recent Adv Biol Med, 2(2016), p.923.

Acontium leave Royle Muneri Ranunculaceae Herb NA Stomach ailments and other internal disorders of the cattle. At signs of weakness, diarrhoea, delivery. Acontium leave Royle
Acorus calamus L. Wai, Bauch, Wia-gander, Sweet Flag Araceae Herb

β-Asarone, α- Asarone, Elemicine, cis-Isoelemicine, cis & trans-
Isoeugenol, Camphene, P-Cymene, β-Gurjunene, α- Selinene, β-
Cadinene, Camphor, Terpinen-4-ol, α-Terpineol, α-Calacorene,

Acorone, Acorenone, Acoragermacrone, Shyobunones,
Isohyobunones, Calamusenone, Linalool, pre-Isocalamendiol
(Hou and Jin, 2005)

Ageratochromene, 6-Methoxyquinoline-1-oxide, βCaryophyllene, β-Sinenesal, β-Sesquiphelandrene, τ-Cadinene (Rana and Blazquezb, 2003)

Wounds, Worms. Paste of the rhizome mixed with small quantity of sugar is used to cure stomach ailments. Crushed plant made into paste and applied externally for various skin diseases. Extract or decoction of root taken in small dozes for stomach troubles.

It is a traditional Indian medicinal herb, which is practiced to treat a wide range of health ailments, including neurological, gastrointestinal, respiratory, metabolic, kidney, and liver disorders.

Acorus calamus L.,

Hou, J.P., Jin, Y., 2005. The Healing Power of Chinese Herbs and Medicinal Recipes. The Haworth Integrative Healing Press, Binghampton, New York.

Rana, V.S., Blazquezb, M.A., 2003. Chemical composition of the volatile oil of Ageratum conyzoides aerial parts. International Journal of Aromatherapy 13, 203–206.

Actaea spicata L. Larddi Ranunculaceae Herb 4 C-glucosyl-3, 5-dihydroxy-2-methoxy benzoic acid and its acetyl derivative 5-acetoxy-4 C-glucosyl-3-hydroxy-2-methoxy benzoic acid. It has been traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as rheumatism, inflammation, nerve diseases, lumbago, scrofula and chorea. Actaea spicata L. Madaan, R., Bansal, G. and Sharma, A., 2011. New phenolic glycosides from roots of Actaea spicata Linneaus. Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research, 1(1), pp.11-4.
Adiantum cappilus veneris Gautheer Adiantaceae Herb Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, and reducing sugars Water, methanol, and ethanol extracts of leaves, stems, and roots showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against most of the MDR bacterial and fungal strains Adiantum cappilus veneris Ishaq, M.S., Hussain, M.M., Siddique Afridi, M., Ali, G., Khattak, M. and Ahmad, S., 2014. In vitro phytochemical, antibacterial, and antifungal activities of leaf, stem, and root extracts of Adiantum capillus veneris. The Scientific World Journal, 2014.
Adonis chrysocyathus Yellow Himalayan Oxeye Daisy Ranunculaceae Herb Cymarin (1), adonitoxin (2), 16-hydroxy-strophanthidin (3), acetyladonitoxin (4), vernadigin (5) and 3-acetylstrophadogenin (6) Adonis chrysocyathus Shang, X., Miao, X., Yang, F., Wang, C., Li, B., Wang, W., Pan, H., Guo, X., Zhang, Y. and Zhang, J., 2019. The genus Adonis as an important cardiac folk medicine: a review of the ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Frontiers in pharmacology, 10, p.25.
Aesculus indica (Colebr.ex Cambess.) Hook Handoon Sapindaceae Herb Preliminary qualitative phytochemical analysis of Aesculus indica crude extract showed presence of flavonoids, coumarins, saponins and tannins. Sterols, anthraquinones and alkaloids were absent in crude extract as well as fractions cytotoxic activity against breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7) Aesculus indica (Colebr.ex Cambess.) Hook DS, G., Role of Vacha (Acorus calamus Linn.) in Neurological and Metabolic Disorders: Evidence from Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Clinical Study
Ageratum conyzoides L. Asteraceae Herb

Ageratochromene, 6-Methoxyquinoline-1-oxide, β-
Caryophyllene, β-Sinenesal, β-Sesquiphelandrene, τ-Cadinene

(Rana and Blazquezb, 2003)

Nervous system ailments Ageratum conyzoides L., Rana, V.S., Blazquezb, M.A., 2003. Chemical composition of the volatile oil of Ageratum conyzoides aerial parts. International Journal of Aromatherapy 13, 203–206.
Aguilegia fragrans Fragrant Columbine Ranunculaceae Herb 2, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid methyl ester, β-sitosterol, Aquilegiolide, Glochidionolactone-A  Aquilegia fragrans exhibit weak antibacterial activities. Further phytochemical and pharmacological studies are required for proper scientific validation of the folk use of this plant species in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases like bovine mastitis Aguilegia fragrans Mushtaq, S., Aga, M.A., Qazi, P.H., Ali, M.N., Shah, A.M., Lone, S.A., Shah, A., Hussain, A., Rasool, F., Dar, H. and Shah, Z.H., 2016. Isolation, characterization and HPLC quantification of compounds from Aquilegia fragrans Benth: Their in vitro antibacterial activities against bovine mastitis pathogens. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 178, pp.9-12.
Aguilegia pubiflora Himalayan Columbine Ranunculaceae Herb flavonoid compunds and phenolic acids plant extracts can be used to treat hepatocarcinoma because they showed significant cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells. Furthermore, substantial inhibition activity against α-amylase, α-glucosidase, Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and Butrylcholinesterase (BChE) was observed, paying the way for its use as anti-diabetic and anti-Alzheimer’s therapeutics. Pentosidine-Like AGEs were shown to have a high benefit and antiinflammatory capacity. The findings from the abovementioned biological activities suggested that Aquilegia pubiflora leaf extract could be a suitable candidate for various biomedical applications. Aguilegia pubiflora Bylka, W., Szaufer‐Hajdrych, M., Matławska, I. and Goślińska, O., 2004. Antimicrobial activity of isocytisoside and extracts of Aquilegia vulgaris L. Letters in applied microbiology, 39(1), pp.93-97. Jan, H., Usman, H., Shah, M., Zaman, G., Mushtaq, S., Drouet, S., Hano, C. and Abbasi, B.H., 2021. Phytochemical analysis and versatile in vitro evaluation of antimicrobial, cytotoxic and enzyme inhibition potential of different extracts of traditionally used Aquilegia pubiflora Wall. Ex Royle. BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies, 21(1), pp.1-19.
Ajuga bracteosa Wallich ex Benth Ajuga bracteosa Wallich ex Benth
Ajuga parviflora Benth. Jan-i-Adam, Ratijadi, Ratibooty Lamiaceae Herb

β–Caryophyllene, γ-Muurolene, γ-Terpinene, Caryophyllene
oxide (Joshi et al., 2016)

Cough, Fever, Intestinal infection, Indigestion, Stomach problems, Piles

Ajuga parviflora Benth., Joshi, R.K., 2016. Chemical constituents of leaf essential oils of Heracleum candicans Wall. ex DC. from western Himalaya of Uttarakhand, India. American Journal of Essential Oils and Natural Products 4, 1–4.
Allium cepa L. Gande, Pyaz, Onion Amaryllidaceae Herb Onion is the source of various biologically active phytomolecules, such as phenolic acids, thiosulphinates, and flavonoids to where anthocyanins, quercetin, kaempferol and their glycosides belong Crushed bulb applied externally for boils. Crushed bulb mixed with mint eaten for increasing appetite. Fresh bulbs are mixed with  paddy chaff (poi) to stimulate the estrus cycle of the cows and ewes during reeding season. Allium cepa L. Bystrická, J., Musilová, J., Vollmannová, A., Timoracká, M. and Kavalcová, P., 2013. Bioactive components of onion (Allium cepa L.)—A Review. Acta Alimentaria, 42(1), pp.11-22.
Allium humile. Small Alpine Onion Amaryllidaceae Herb Alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids and terpenoids. Anti- analgesic Activity Allium humile. Singh, K., Gangwar, R.K., Singh, G., Jadon, V.S. and Ranjan, S., 2014. Studies on the Analgesic Potential of leaf Extracts of Allium humile on Swiss albino mice. European Researcher, (9-2), pp.1677-1681.
Allium sativum L. Ruhun Amaryllidaceae Herb Diallyl thiosulphinate (allicin), methyl allyl thiosulphinate, and allyl methyl thiosulphinate Tincture  from  bulbs  boiled  in mustard  oil is  rubbed  to  cure  baldness  (alopecia),  and the recurrent dandruff. For high blood pressure and obesity cloves are eaten raw or mixed with vegetables as spice. Allium sativum L. Hughes, B.G. and Lawson, L.D., 1991. Antimicrobial effects of Allium sativum L.(garlic), Allium ampeloprasum L.(elephant garlic), and Allium cepa L.(onion), garlic compounds and commercial garlic supplement products. Phytotherapy Research, 5(4), pp.154-158.
Allium victorialis L. Van gande Amaryllidaceae Herb trans-phytol (1), phytene-1,2-diol (2), icariside B2 (3), (6S,9S)-roseoside (4), sedumoside G (5), pinoresinol-4-O-glucoside (6), 2-methoxy-2-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol (7), 2-hydroxy-2-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol (8), Benzyl β-D glucopyranoside (9), methyl ferulate (10), trans-ferulic acid (11), methyl-p-hydroxycinnamate (12), glucosyl methyl ferulate (13), linocaffein (14), siringin (15), 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-ethyl-O-β-Dglucopyranoside (16), and pseudolaroside C (17). Whole plant given to cow and buffalo to cure cold and cough ailments. Allium victorialis L. Woo, K.W. and Lee, K.R., 2013. Phytochemical constituents of Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum. Natural Product Sciences, 19(3), pp.221-226.
Alnus nitida Endl. Saroli Betulaceae Tree mucilage, phenolic acid, scopoletin, and flavonoids. hepatoprotective activity of A. nitida bark is likely due to the scavenging of free radicals and sustaining of endogenous antioxidant molecules. This effect appears to be facilitated by natural antioxidants in A. nitida bark, which remarkably diminished the oxidative stress and led to normal hepatic functions. Alnus nitida Endl. Sajid, M., Khan, M.R., Shah, N.A., Shah, S.A., Ismail, H., Younis, T. and Zahra, Z., 2016. Phytochemical, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Alnus nitida bark in carbon tetrachloride challenged Sprague Dawley rats. BMC complementary and alternative medicine, 16(1), pp.1-17.
Althaea officinalis Marsh mello Malvaceae Herb Marshmallow has been prescribed in various forms such as tablet, syrup, gargle, vaginal suppository, vaginal douche, rectal enema, as well as ophthalmic and nasal drop for different diseases by PM scholars. Some of its traditional effects including anti-inflammatory, antitussive, anti-infective, and anti-pyretic properties have been confirmed in new studies.  Althaea officinalis Kianitalaei, A., Feyzabadi, Z., Hamedi, S. and Qaraaty, M., 2019. Althaea Officinalis in Traditional Medicine and modern phytotherapy. Journal of Advanced Pharmacy Education & Research| Apr-Jun, 9(S2), p.155.
Amaranthus retroflexus L. Ganhaar Amaranthaceae Herb

L-Tryptophan, Rutin, α-Spinasterol, β-Sitosterol, Kaempferol-3-
O-Rutinoside, Stigmasterol, n-Triaconatanoic acid (Ying, 2008)

Measles, Dandruff Amaranthus retroflexus L., Ying, Z., 2008. Studies on Chemical Constituents of Amaranthus retroflexus L. and Its Pharmacological Activities. Master’s Thesis. Jilin University, China.
Anagallis arvensis Chari Saben Primulaceae Herb methyl gallte, quercetin, lanceoletin, and balanitesin, amongst others For ulcers crushed plant is applied on effected area. Extract of rhizome given for sore throat and as an expectorant. Anagallis arvensis Saleem, H., Zengin, G., Ahmad, I., Htar, T.T., Naidu, R., Mahomoodally, M.F. and Ahemad, N., 2020. Therapeutic propensities, phytochemical composition, and toxicological evaluation of Anagallis arvensis (L.): A wild edible medicinal food plant. Food Research International, 137, p.109651.
Anaphalis mucronata DC. Daderi-Dawa Asteraceae Herb

α −Guaiene, γ −Muurolene, γ −Cadinene, α −Muurolol, α
−Gurjunene, α −Bulnesene (Joshi et al., 2009a, 2009b)

Skin diseases, Wound healing (Joshi, K., Chavan, P., Warude, D., 2009a. Molecular markers in herbal drug technology. Current Science 87, 159–165. Joshi, R.K., Pande, C., Mujawar, M.H., Kholkute, S.D., 2009b. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Anaphalis nubigena var. monocephala. Natural Product Communications 4, 993–996.
Anaphalis nubigena DC. Daderi-Dawa Asteraceae Herb

α −Guaiene, γ −Muurolene, γ −Cadinene, α −Muurolol, α
−Gurjunene, α −Bulnesene (Joshi et al., 2009a, 2009b)

Skin diseases, Wound healing Anaphalis nubigena DC. Joshi, K., Chavan, P., Warude, D., 2009a. Molecular markers in herbal drug technology. Current Science 87, 159–165. Joshi, R.K., Pande, C., Mujawar, M.H., Kholkute, S.D., 2009b. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Anaphalis nubigena var. monocephala. Natural Product Communications 4, 993–996.
Anaphalis triplinervis Woolly Pearly Everlasting Asteraceae Herb The principal constituents identified were: epi-α-cadinol (15.6%), valencene (9.2%), 1,10-epoxyfuranoeremophilane (7.7%), α-humulene (5.6%), α-farnesene (5.7%), β-vetivone (5.5%), and germacrene D (4.7%). Other significant constituents were β-caryophyllene (3.7%), p-cymene (2.9%), (Z)-β-ocimene (2.6%), β-elemene (2.3%), caryophyllene oxide (2.3%), and humulene epoxide II (2.0%) traditionally used to treat epilepsy, laceration of toes, and wounds Anaphalis triplinervis Sharma, R.K., Kaur, H., Singh, M., Kumar, M., Sharma, R., Shah, G.C. and Sharma, P., 2019. Chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of essential oil Anaphalis triplinervis from Western Himalaya. Chemistry of Natural Compounds, 55(4), pp.751-753.
Androsace mucronifolia Roundleaf Rock Jasmine Primulaceae Herb Primulaceae Androsace mucronifolia Kumar G, P., Gupta, S., Murugan M, P. and Bala Singh, S., 2009. Ethnobotanical studies of Nubra Valley-A cold arid zone of Himalaya. Ethnobotanical leaflets, 2009(6), p.9.
Anemone rupicola Rock Anemone Ranunculaceae Herb triterpenoids, saponins, steroids, lactones, fats and oils, saccharides, and alkaloids, etc Stomach worms, sharp pain, snakebite, cold tumor, gonorrhoea, joint yellow water Anemone rupicola Hao, D.C., Gu, X. and Xiao, P., 2017. Anemone medicinal plants: ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and biology. Acta pharmaceutica sinica B, 7(2), pp.146-158.
Anemone sp.
Angelica archangelica var. himalaica C.B. Clarke) Nasir Chohur, Chora Apiaceae Herb

α-Pinene, δ-3-Carene, Limonene, α-Phellandrene (Fraternale
et al., 2014)

Antispasmodic, Carminative, Diaphoretic,
Expectorant, Stimulant, Stomach problems. A decoction of the roots and fruits is used as an expectorant.

Angelica archangelica var. Fraternale, D., Flamini, G., Ricci, D., 2014. Essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of Angelica archangelica L. (Apiaceae) roots. Journal of Medicinal Food 17, 1043–1047.
Angelica glauca Edgew Chohur,  Chora, Faka gasse Apiaceae Herb

α −Phellandrene, trans-carveol, β-Pinene, Thujene, β
−Caryophyllene, γ −Terpinene, Nerolidol, β −Bisabolene,
Germacrene-D, Lingustilide, Butylidene phthalide (Agnihotri
et al., 2004)

Dyspepsia, Flatulence. Enhance milk production in cattle espacially cows and goats. Root powder mixed with tea to treat gas and acidity in cattle. Decoction of the plant is considered to be cardiac stimulant and also used to cure mental disorders. Angelica glauca Edgew, Agnihotri, V.K., Thappa, R.K., Meena, B., Kapahi, B.K., Saxena, R.K., Qazi, G.N., et al., 2004. Essential oil composition of aerial parts of Angelica glauca growing wild in North–West Himalaya (India). Phytochemistry 65, 2411–2413.
Anthemis cotula L. Fukh-ghass Asteraceae Herb

Nonadecane, Cedrane α-Farnesene, Eicosane, Benzyl salicylate,

Aromadendrene (Rezaei and Kamkar, 2007)

Insect bite, Muscular pain Anthemis cotula L., Rezaei, M.B., Kamkar, J., 2007. Chemical composition of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Anthemis cotula L. from Gilan Provinc. Journal of Medicinal Plants 6, 99–105.
Aquilegia nivalis (Baker) Falc.ex B.D.Jacks. Snow Columbine Ranunculaceae Herb Aquilegia nivalis (Baker) Falc.ex B.D.Jacks Hilal, N., Qadri, O., Nawchoo, I.A., Akbar, S. and Fazili, K.M., 2021. Cancer cells are selectively eliminated through UPR driven apoptosis during treatment with Aquilegia nivalis extracts.
Aralia cachemirica Decne. Chuhur Araliaceae Herb The following phytoconstituents have already been isolated from the plant: octadec-6-enoic acid, 8-primara-14, 15-diene-19- oic acid, aralosides A&B hypoglycemic activity in glucose loaded animals Aralia cachemirica  Decne.

Majid, N., Nissar, S., Raja, W.Y., Nawchoo, I.A. and Bhat, Z.A., 2021. Pharmacognostic standardization of Aralia cachemirica: a comparative study. Future Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 7(1), pp.1-8.

Pandita, D., Pandita, A. and Pandita, S., 2015. Pharmacological and Phytochemical Portrayal of Dicotyledonous Medicinal Plants of Jammu and Kashmir abound with Antidiabetic Potential. J. Microbiol. Biotech. Res, 5, pp.16-27.

Archangelica officinalis Hoffm. Chohur, Chora Apiaceae Herb

α-Pinene, δ-3-Carene, Limonene, α-Phellandrene (Fraternale
et al., 2014)

Antispasmodic, Carminative, Diaphoretic,
Expectorant, Stimulant, Stomach problems. A decoction of the roots and fruits is used as an expectorant.

Archangelica officinalis Hoffm. Fraternale, D., Flamini, G., Ricci, D., 2014. Essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of Angelica archangelica L. (Apiaceae) roots. Journal of Medicinal Food 17, 1043–1047.
Arctium lappa Linn. Cheerkachh Asteraceae Herb Caffeic acid (3, 4 – Dihydroxy - cinnamic acid); Chlrogenic acid (1S,3R,4R,5R)-3-{[(2Z)-3-(3,4 dihydroxyphenyl) prop -2 – enoyl] oxy }- 1, 4 ,5- trihydroxycyclohexanecarboxylic acid;  antiinflmmatory, hepatoprotective, antitumor, antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-aging and hypoglycemic effects Arctium lappa Linn. Al-Shammaa, D.A., Saour, K.Y. and Abdul-Khalik, Z.M., 2013. Phytochemical investigation for the main active constituents in Arctium lappa L. cultivated in Iraq. Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (P-ISSN: 1683-3597, E-ISSN: 2521-3512), 22(1), pp.18-24.
Arisaema jacquemontii Blume Hapat Brand, Kawawari, Hapat makei, Hapat Gogej Araceae Herb Ariseminone (Verma et al., 2012)

Respiratory disorders, Chronic boils, Skin diseases

Arisaema jacquemontii Blume, Fraternale, D., Flamini, G., Ricci, D., 2014. Essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of Angelica archangelica L. (Apiaceae) roots. Journal of Medicinal Food 17, 1043–1047.
Arisaema propinquum Schott Sarfamakai Araceae Herb carbohydrates, protein, amino acids, fats and oils, sterols and steroids, glycoside, coumarins, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and phenoliccompounds, acidic compounds, saponins, terpenes and terpenoids, mucilage resins, and lipids/fats. methanolic and aqueous extracts of A. propinquum Schott rhizomes possess good anthelminthic activity.  Arisaema propinquum Schott Mir, P.A., Dar, M.A. and Bader, G.N., 2020. Pharmacognostical standardization, phytochemical investigation, and anthelminthic activity of Arisaema propinquum Schott rhizomes. Pharmacognosy Research, 12(2).
Arnebia benthamii Wall. ex G. Don. Kahzaban Boraginaceae Herb

Alkaloids, Phenols, Anthraquinones, Flavonoids, Saponins,
Glycosides, Tannins, Terpenoids (Shameem et al., 2015)

Decoction  of  rhizome  in  sugary  water  is sipped  to  alleviate  common  cold,  cough and fever; also a good blood purifier. Fever, Throat infection, Cold, Cough, Diuretic, Headache, Heart diseases, Jaundice, Cough, Pneumonia, Ulcer, Hair loss. Tea (kahwa) is used for cough. Arnebia benthamii Wall. Shameem, N., Kamili, A.N., Javid, A.P., Hamed, R., Bandh, S.A., 2015. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of Arnebia benthamii (Wall ex. G. Don) Johnston-A critically endangered medicinal plant of North western Himalaya. Journal of Analytical Science and Technology 6, 36–43.
Arnebia euchroma(Royle) I.M.Johnst. Demok Boraginaceae Herb

Arnebinone, Ethyl 9-(2′,5′-dihydroxyphenyl) nonanoate, Octyl
ferulate, Butyryl alkannin (Singh et al., 2015)

Cold, Earache, Eye ailments, Gynaecological disorders, Hair tonic, Kidney disorders, Lung problems, Toothache, Urinary disorder, Wounds. Arnebia euchroma (Royle) Singh, L.K., Maheshwari, D.K., Bajpai, V.K., 2015. Isolation of bioactive marker component, butyryl alkannin from Arnebia euchroma roots and its efficacy against multidrug–resistant pathogens. National Academy of Science Letters 38, 87–90.
Artemisia absinthium L. Teth-Win, Chhuma-Jom Asteraceae Herb

Camphor, Sabinene, Myrcene, Cineole, Artemisia ketone,
Linalool, α-Thujone, β-Thujone, Epoxyocimene, Verbenol,
Carvone, Sabinyl acetate, Curcumene, Neryl butyrate,

Chamazulene, Chrysanthenyl acetate, Germacrene D, α-
Phellandrene (Sharopov et al., 2012)

Paste  of  dried  leaves  and  inflorescences blended  with  a  glass  of  lukewarm  milk  or water  is  used  to  cure  stomach  pain  and worm infections of intestine. Dandruff, Fever, Stomach pain, Worm-intestinal. Extract of whole herb is used to cure the liver infection in cattle. Dried herb in powdered form is used in epilepsy, gout and fever. Artemisia absinthium L., Sharopov, F.S., Sulaimonova, V.A., Setzer, W.N., 2012. Composition of the essential oil of Artemisia absinthium from Tajikistan. Records of Natural Products 6, 127–134.
Artemisia amygdalina D.
Artemisia annua L. Asteraceae Herb

Artemisinin, Camphor, 1–8 Cineole, β-Eudesmol, Borneol,
Camphene, Pcymene, Terpene-4-ol, α-Pinene, α-Gurjunene
(Shaheen et al., 2014)

Parasite diseases, Malaria, Cancer Artemisia annua L., Shaheen, F., Rasoola, S., Shah, Z.A., Soomro, S., Jabeen, A., Mesaik, M.A., et al., 2014. Chemical constituents of Marrubium vulgare as potential inhibitors of nitric oxide and respiratory burst. Natural Product Communications 9, 903–906.
Artemisia brevifolia Wall. Murin Asteraceae Herb

Caryophyllene, Chrysanthenyl propionate, Elixene, Piperitone,
Carvone, Camphor, Pinocarveol, Chrysanthenone (Abad et al.,
2012)

Blood ailments, Fever, Gastro-intestinal disorder. Artemisia brevifolia Wall. Abad, M.J., Bedoya, L.M., Apaza, L., Bermejo, P., 2012. The Artemisia L. genus: a review of bioactive essential oils. Molecules 17, 2542–2566.
Artemisia capillaris Waldst & Kitam. Pari chaw, Tethwan Asteraceae Herb Capillene, β-Caryophyllene, Myrcene, β- Pinene, p-Cymene, γ
−Terpinene, 1-Phenyl-2,4-pentadiyne (Joshi et al., 2016)
Fever, Blood pressure, skin and ear diseases. The aerial part made into a paste with common salt, given to eliminate intestinal worms and flatulence. Joshi, R.K., Satyal, P., Setzer, W.N., 2016. Himalayan aromatic medicinal plants: a review of their ethnopharmacology, volatile phytochemistry, and biological activities. Medicines 3, 6.
Artemisia dracunculus L. Tarragon, Tsa-chheh, Shersing Asteraceae Herb

Anethole, Limonene, Methyl chavicol; α, β-Ocimene, α-Pinene,
Methyl eugenol, β-Pinene, α-Terpinolene, Bornyl acetate,
Bicyclogermacrene (Abad et al., 2012)

Intestinal disorder, Indigestion, Menstrual irregularities, Toothache. Artemisia dracunculus L. Abad, M.J., Bedoya, L.M., Apaza, L., Bermejo, P., 2012. The Artemisia L. genus: a review of bioactive essential oils. Molecules 17, 2542–2566.
Artemisia dubia Wall. Asteraceae Herb Thujone; 1,8-cineole, Camphor, Borneol, Linalyl acetate,
Humulene, Caryophyllene, Eugenol (Joshi et al., 2016)
Allergy, Boils Joshi, R.K., Satyal, P., Setzer, W.N., 2016. Himalayan aromatic medicinal plants: a review of their ethnopharmacology, volatile phytochemistry, and biological activities. Medicines 3, 6.
Artemisia herba-alba Asso Murin Asteraceae Herb

Caryophyllene, Chrysanthenyl propionate, Elixene, Piperitone,
Carvone, Camphor, Pinocarveol, Chrysanthenone (Abad et al.,
2012)

Blood ailments, Fever, Gastro-intestinal disorder. Abad, M.J., Bedoya, L.M., Apaza, L., Bermejo, P., 2012. The Artemisia L. genus: a review of bioactive essential oils. Molecules 17, 2542–2566.
Artemisia indica Willd Nagdowna Asteraceae Herb

Davanone, β-Pinene, Germacrene-D, Isobornyl isobutyrate, β-
Pinene, Limonene, δ-3- Carene, α-Pinene, δ-Terpinene, Rose

oxide (Haider et al., 2014)

Malaria, Fever Haider, S.Z., Mohan, M., Andola, H.C., 2014. Constituents of Artemisia indica Willd. from Uttarakhand Himalaya: A source of davanone. Pharmacognosy Research 6, 257.
Artemisia japonica Thunb. Zieo Asteraceae Herb

Spathulenol, Germacrene D, β-Elemene, Caryophyllene (Rashmi et al., 2014)

Skin infections, Diarrhoea. Artemisia japonica Thunb. Rashmi, T.R., Francis, M.S., Soumya, M., 2014. Essential oil composition of Artemisia japonica Thunb. from Kerala. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 3, 160–163. 
Artemisia macrocephala Jacquem.ex Besser Atantin, Khamchu Asteraceae Herb

Eucalyptol, 1,8-Cineole, Geranyl butyrate, Borneol, Camphor
(Abad et al., 2012)

Urinary disorders, Kidney pain, Inflammation, Skin problems. Abad, M.J., Bedoya, L.M., Apaza, L., Bermejo, P., 2012. The Artemisia L. genus: a review of bioactive essential oils. Molecules 17, 2542–2566.
Artemisia maritima L.
Artemisia martima L.
Artemisia nilagirica (C.B.Clarke) Pamp. Asteraceae Shrub

Borneol, Caryophyllene oxide, Camphor, β-Thujone, Thujanol,
Myrtenol, Lynalyl acetate, α-Pinene, β-Pinene, Limonene,
Linalool, γ-Gurijunene, Germacrane D, Farnesol (Abad et al.,
2012)

Asthma, Nervous disorder Artemisia-nilagirica Abad, M.J., Bedoya, L.M., Apaza, L., Bermejo, P., 2012. The Artemisia L. genus: a review of bioactive essential oils. Molecules 17, 2542–2566.
Artemisia parviflora Buch. −Ham. ex D. Don Zieo Asteraceae Herb Spathulenol, Germacrene D, β-Elemene, Caryophyllene (Rashmi et al., 2014) Skin infections, Diarrhoea. Rashmi, T.R., Francis, M.S., Soumya, M., 2014. Essential oil composition of Artemisia japonica Thunb. from Kerala. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 3, 160–163.
Artemisia roxburghiana Besser. var. purpurascens (Jacq.) Asteraceae Herb

Thujone; 1,8-cineole, Camphor, Borneol, Linalyl acetate,
Humulene, Caryophyllene, Eugenol (Joshi et al., 2016)

Allergy, Boils Artemisia roxburghiana Joshi, R.K., Satyal, P., Setzer, W.N., 2016. Himalayan aromatic medicinal plants: a review of their ethnopharmacology, volatile phytochemistry, and biological activities. Medicines 3, 6.
Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kitam. Pari chaw, Tethwan Asteraceae Herb

Capillene, β-Caryophyllene, Myrcene, β- Pinene, p-Cymene, γ
−Terpinene, 1-Phenyl-2,4-pentadiyne (Joshi et al., 2016)

Fever, Blood pressure, skin and ear diseases. The aerial part made into a paste with common salt, given to eliminate intestinal worms and flatulence. Artemisia scoparia Waldst. Joshi, R.K., Satyal, P., Setzer, W.N., 2016. Himalayan aromatic medicinal plants: a review of their ethnopharmacology, volatile phytochemistry, and biological activities. Medicines 3, 6.
Artemisia sieversiana Ehrh. Atantin, Khamchu Asteraceae Herb

Eucalyptol, 1,8-Cineole, Geranyl butyrate, Borneol, Camphor
(Abad et al., 2012)

Urinary disorders, Kidney pain, Inflammation, Skin problems. Artemisia sieversiana Ehrh. Abad, M.J., Bedoya, L.M., Apaza, L., Bermejo, P., 2012. The Artemisia L. genus: a review of bioactive essential oils. Molecules 17, 2542–2566.
Artemisia vulgaris L. Nagdowna Asteraceae Herb

Davanone, β-Pinene, Germacrene-D, Isobornyl isobutyrate, β-
Pinene, Limonene, δ-3- Carene, α-Pinene, δ-Terpinene, Rose

oxide (Haider et al., 2014)

Malaria, Fever Artemisia vulgaris L. Haider, S.Z., Mohan, M., Andola, H.C., 2014. Constituents of Artemisia indica Willd. from Uttarakhand Himalaya: A source of davanone. Pharmacognosy Research 6, 257.
Asparagus filicinus Buch. Ham Fern Asparagus  Asparagaceae Herb Two new spirostanoides, filiasparosides E (1) and F (2), one new furostanoside, filiasparoside G (3), and one new ecdysterone, stachysterone A-20, 22-acetonide (4), together with six known steroidal saponins, asparagusin A (5), filiasparoside A (6), filiasparoside B (7), aspafilioside A (8), aspafilioside B (9), and filiasparoside C (10) were isolated from the roots of Asparagus filicinus cytotoxicities against human breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell line Asparagus filicinus Buch. Ham Wu, J.J., Cheng, K.W., Zuo, X.F., Wang, M.F., Li, P., Zhang, L.Y., Wang, H. and Ye, W.C., 2010. Steroidal saponins and ecdysterone from Asparagus filicinus and their cytotoxic activities. Steroids, 75(10), pp.734-739.
Asperagus recemosus Satavar Asparagaceae Herb Steroidal saponins, known as shatvarins. Shatvarin I to VI are present. Shatvarin I is the major glycoside with 3-glucose and rhamnose moieties attached to sarsapogenin, Oligospirostanoside referred to as Immunoside, Polycyclic alkaloid-Aspargamine A, a cage type pyrrolizidine alkaloid galactogougue affects, antihepatotoxic, immunomodulatory effects, immunoadjuvant effect, antilithiatic effect and teratogenicity of A. racemosus. Asperagus recemosus Alok, S., Jain, S.K., Verma, A., Kumar, M., Mahor, A. and Sabharwal, M., 2013. Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari): A review. Asian Pacific journal of tropical disease, 3(3), pp.242-251.
Astragalus grahamianus Drabi kaeind Fabaceae Herb Skin diseases Astragalus grahamianus Kala, C.P., 2006. Medicinal plants of the high altitude cold desert in India: diversity, distribution and traditional uses. The International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management, 2(1), pp.43-56.
Atropa acuminata Royle ex Lindl. Sagangur, Belladonna Solanaceae Herb

Tropane alkaloids— atropine and scopolamine (Ashtiania and
Sefidkonb, 2011)

Arthritis, asthma, conjunctivitis, encephalitis, pancreatitis,peritonitis, acute infections and neuroinflammatory disorders. Rheumatic pain, Asthma, Narcotic, Sedative, Burns, Eye diseases, Inflammation. Roots and leaves are used as sedative, diuretic and analgesic. For asthma, leaves are burnt and smoke is inhaled. For joint pain, paste of leaves is applied on the affected area. For blood circulation, Extract of root is taken. Atropa acuminata Royle Ashtiania, F., Sefidkonb, F., 2011. Tropane alkaloids of Atropa belladonna L. and Atropa acuminata Royle ex Miers plants. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 5, 6515–6522.
Atropa belladonna L. Sagangur, Belladonna Solanaceae Herb Tropane alkaloids— atropine and scopolamine (Ashtiania and
Sefidkonb, 2011)
Arthritis, asthma, conjunctivitis, encephalitis, pancreatitis,peritonitis, acute infections and neuroinflammatory disorders. Rheumatic pain, Asthma, Narcotic, Sedative, Burns, Eye diseases, Inflammation. Roots and leaves are used as sedative, diuretic and analgesic. For asthma, leaves are burnt and smoke is inhaled. For joint pain, paste of leaves is applied on the affected area. For blood circulation, Extract of root is taken. Atropa belladonna L. Ashtiania, F., Sefidkonb, F., 2011. Tropane alkaloids of Atropa belladonna L. and Atropa acuminata Royle ex Miers plants. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 5, 6515–6522.
Berberis aristata DC. Kaodach Berberidaceae Shrub

Berberine, Oxyberberine, Berbamine, Aromoline, Karachine,
Palmatine, Oxycanthine Taxilamine (Mazumder et al., 2011)

Backache, Eye ailments, Fracture, Jaundice, Malarial fever, General Weakness Berberis aristata DC., Mazumder, P.M., Das, S., Das, M.K., 2011. Phyto–pharmacology of Berberis aristata DC: a review. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 1, 46–50.
Berberis asiatica Roxb. ex DC. Rasaut, Kasmal Berberidaceae Shrub

Berberine, Palmitine, Jatrrohirine, Colunbamamine
Tetrahydropalmitine, Berbamine, Oxyberberine, oxyacanthine
(Srivastava et al., 2015)

Backache, Joint pain. Berberis asiatica Roxb. Srivastava, S., Srivastava, M., Misra, A., Pandey, G., Rawat, A.K., 2015. A review on biological and chemical diversity in Berberis (Berberidaceae). Experimental and Clinical Sciences 14, 247–267.
Berberis lycium Royle Unab, Kawdach Berberidaceae Shrub

Palmatine, Berberine, Vasicin, Vasicinone, Tannin, Flavonoids,
Phenols, Terpenoids (Sood et al., 2013)

Soft root peelings boiled in sugary water is taken  to  relieve  indigestion,  constipation, and    irregular    bowl    movements;    paste prepared  from  fresh  fruits  is  used  to  heal wounds. Eye diseases, Stomach disorders, Jaundice, Boils, Chest problem, Splenic trouble. Berberis lycium Royle, Sood, P., Modgil, R., Sood, M., 2013. Berberis lycium a medicinal plant with immense value. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research 1, 27–37.
Bergenia ciliata(Haw.) Stemb Zakhm-i-Hayat, Pahend, Korasadun Saxifragaceae Herb

Gallic acid, Tannic acid, Galloylcatechin, Catechin, Metarbin,
Bergenin, Catechin (Ruby et al., 2012)

Asthma, Bladder stone, Diarrhoea, Digestive ailments, Menstrual irregularities, Pulmonary infections, Skin diseases, Wounds. Decoction of the rhizome used as antiseptic in foot and mouth diseases. Powdered rhizome is used as tonic and popularly used to break stones in bladder and kidney. Bergenia ciliata .Ruby, K.M., Chauhan, R., Sharma, S., Dwivedi, J., 2012. Polypharmacological activities of Bergenia species. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 1, 100–109.
Bergenia ligulata Pashanabheda Saxifragaceae Herb the preliminary investigation revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, glycosides, carbohydrates and saponins the diethylether and acetone extract were studied. β-Sitosterol, stigmesterol, tannic acid and gallic acid were isolated by using thin layer and column chromatography. It is used in urinary bladder stone, antilithic activity diuretic activity, anti-bradykinin activity, antiviral activity, antipyretic activity, antibacterial, anti inflammatory, hepatoprotective activity, insecticidal activity, α-glucosidase activity. Bergenia ligulata Ruby, K.M., Chauhan, R., Sharma, S. and Dwivedi, J., 2012. Polypharmacological activities of Bergenia species. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, 13(1), pp.100-110.
Bergenia stracheyi (Hook.f. & Thomson) Engl. Bergenia stracheyi (Hook.f. & Thomson) Engl
Betula utilis D.Don. Burze Betulaceae Tree

Betulin, Betulic acid, Geranic acid, β-Seleneol, β-Linalool,
Terragon, β-Sesquiphellendrene, Champacol, Cineol (Pal et al.,
2015)

Bronchitis, Burns, Jaundice, Leprosy, Anaemia, Hysteria, Obesity, Rheumatism, Primogenital diseases. Infusion of the bark is used as antiseptic. Betula utilis D.Don., Pal, M., Mishra, T., Kumar, A., Baleshwar, Upreti, D.K., Rana, T.S., 2015. Chemical constituents and antimicrobial potential of essential oil from Betula utilis growing in high altitude of Himalaya (India). Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants 3 (18), 1078–1082.
Brassica rapa Tilgogul Brassicaceae Herb kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside-7-O-Glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-(feruloyl/caffeoyl)-sophoroside-7-Oglucoside, isorhamnetin 3,7-O-diglucoside, and isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside  It has a wide array of medicine properties including heat-clearing, detoxifying and anti-hypoxia Brassica rapa Hua, H., Zhang, W., Li, J., Li, J., Liu, C., Guo, Y., Cheng, Y., Pi, F., Xie, Y., Yao, W. and Gao, Y., 2021. Neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion by dietary phytochemical extracts from Tibetan turnip (Brassica rapa L.). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 265, p.113410.
Brunella vulgaris Linn. = Prunella
Bunium persicum (Boiss) Fedts. Kalajeera Apiaceae Herb The seeds of Bunium persicum were studied for the presence of flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids and tannins Methanolic extracts of plant have antioxidant activity Bunium persicum (Boiss) Fedts. Sharififar, F., Yassa, N. and Mozaffarian, V., 2010. Bioactivity of major components from the seeds of Bunium persicum (Boiss.) Fedtch. Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 23(3).
Bupleurum falcatum L. Bormuje Apiaceae Herb

Quinic acid derivatives, Flavonoids, Monoterpene glycosides,

Saikosaponins (Tung et al., 2015)

Abdominal pain, Liver diseases. A decoction of the plant is used to cure liver troubles. Bupleurum falcatum L., Tung, N.H., Uto, T., Morinaga, O., Shoyama, Y., 2015. Chemical constituents from the aerial parts of Bupleurum falcatum L. and biological evidences. Natural Product Sciences 21, 71–75.
Calendula officinalis L. Hamesh Bahar Asteraceae Herb

δ-Cadinene, γ-Cadinene, α-Cadinol, α-Muurolene, α-Calacorene
(Gazim et al., 2008)

Eye ailments, Boils, Burns, Pneumonia Calendula officinalis L., Gazim, Z.C., Rezende, C.M., Fraga, S.R., Dias Filho, B.P., Nakamura, C.V., Cortez, D.A., 2008. Analysis of the essential oils from Calendula officinalis growing in Brazil using three different extraction procedures. Revista Brasileira de Ciências Farmacêuticas 44, 391–395.
Cannabis sativa L. Bungh, Chares Cannabaceae Herb

Cannabinoids-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Cannabidiol (CBD),
Cannabinol (CBN), β-Caryophyllene, Cannabigerol, Alkaloids,
Saponin, Flavonoids,Tannins, Cardiac glycosides, Balsam,
Phenols,Terpenes, Steroids, Resins (Audu et al., 2014)

Arthritis, Blood diseases, Cholera, Dandruff, Diarrhoea, Gastric problems, Menstrual disorder, Piles, Rheumatism, Skin diseases, Urinary infection. Cannabis sativa L., Audu, B.S., Ofojekwu, P.C., Ujah, A., Ajima, M.N., 2014. Phytochemical, proximate composition, amino acid profile and characterization of Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.). The Journal of Phytopharmacology 3, 35–43.
Carum carvi Linn. Zeera, zeur Apiaceae Herb cuminaldehyde (22.08%) was the principal component followed by c-terpinene (17.86%), c-terpinene-7-al (15.41%), and p-cymene (7.99%). Blood pressure lowering, vasodilator and cardiac-modulatory, Antitubercular activity, Anticancer, Anti-colitis activity, Cardiovascular disease, Anti-obesity activity, Antimicrobialactivity, Hyperlipidemic effect, antihyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic activity, Anti oxidative stress activity Razzaghi-Abyaneh, M., Shams-Ghahfarokhi, M., Rezaee, M.B., Jaimand, K., Alinezhad, S., Saberi, R. and Yoshinari, T., 2009. Chemical composition and antiaflatoxigenic activity of Carum carvi L., Thymus vulgaris and Citrus aurantifolia essential oils. Food Control, 20(11), pp.1018-1024.Miraj, S. and Kiani, S., 2016. Pharmacological activities of Carum carvi L. Der Pharmacia Lettre, 8(6), pp.135-138.
Celosia argentea L. Moval Amaranthaceae Herb

Saponins, Celosin-E,F,G, Cristatain, Betalains, Nicotinic acid,
Celogenamide-A, Celogentin A–D, H, J, K (Ramesh et al., 2013)

Indigestion, Constipation Celosia argentea L. Ramesh, B.N., Mahalakshmi, A.M., Mallappa, S.H., 2013. Towards a better understanding of an updated ethnopharmacology of Celosia argentea L. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 5, 54–59.
Centaurea iberica Trevir. Krech Asteraceae Herb

Germacrene D, Caryophyllene oxide, β- Caryophyllene, β-
Eudesmol, Bicyclogermacrene, Spathulenol (Kilic, 2013)

Inflammations, Eye & Skin diseases, Burns Centaurea iberica Trevir., Kilic, O., 2013. Essential oil compounds of three Centaurea L. taxa from Turkey and their chemotaxonomy. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 17 (7), 1344–1350.
Cephalanthera longifolia Sword Leaved Helleborine Orchidaceae Herb dysuria Cephalanthera longifolia Shah, A., Bharati, K.A., Ahmad, J. and Sharma, M.P., 2015. New ethnomedicinal claims from Gujjar and Bakerwals tribes of Rajouri and Poonch districts of Jammu and Kashmir, India. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 166, pp.119-128.
Chenopodium album L. Janchikarpo, Saag Amaranthaceae Herb

p- Cymene, Ascaridole, Pinane-2-ol, α-Pinene, β-Pinene, α-
Terpineol (Usman et al., 2010)

Blood pressure, Anaemia, Worms, Constipation Chenopodium album L., Kilic, O., 2013. Essential oil compounds of three Centaurea L. taxa from Turkey and their chemotaxonomy. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 17 (7), 1344–1350.
Chenopodium ambrosoides L. Jangli Javein, Ganhar Amaranthaceae Herb

Terpinyl acetate, p-Cymene, Terpinene ascaridole, Neral,

Geraniol (Koba et al., 2009)

Worms. The root extract combined with sugary water is given in the form of 2 spoonfuls daily at bed time to cure typhoid. Chenopodium ambrosoides L. Koba, K., Catherine, G., Raynaud, C., Chaumont, J.P., Sanda, K., Laurence, N., 2009. Chemical composition and cytotoxic activity of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. essential oil from Togo. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 44, 435–440.
Chenopodium botrys L. Kulkuli akh Amaranthaceae Herb

Elemol acetat, Seline-11-en-4α-ol, Selina-3,11-dien-6α-ol,
Elemol, α-Eudesmol acetat, α-Chenopodiol, Botrydiol (Andov
et al., 2014)

Parasitic worms, Constipation, Stomach & liver ailments, Asthma, Vomiting, Weakness. Chenopodium botrys L. Andov, L.A., Karapandzova, M., Cvetkovikj, I., Stefkov, G., Kulevanova, S., 2014. Chemical composition of Chenopodium botrys L. (Chenopodiaceae) essential oil. Macedonian Pharmaceutical Bulletin 60, 45–51.
Cichorium intybus L. Handi Posh Asteraceae Herb

Tannins, Saponins, Flavonoids, Terpenoids, Cardiac glycosides,

Anthocyanins (Shad et al., 2013)

Pain, Rheumatism Cichorium intybus L., Shad, M.A., Nawaz, H., Rehman, T., Ikram, N., 2013. Determination of some biochemicals, phytochemicals and antioxidant properties of different parts of Cichorium intybus L.: A comparative study. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 23, 1060–1066.
Codonopsis lurida Lindl. Tunde Jaeid Campanulaceae Herb

Cordifoliketone A, Cordifoliketone B, Coniferaldehyde,
Sinapinaldehyde, Coniferoside, Isoconiferin, Nervolan B-C,
Dillapiole (He et al., 2015)

Asthma, General weakness. He, J.Y., Ma, N., Zhu, S., Komatsu, K., Li, Z.Y., Fu, W.M., 2015. The genus Codonopsis (Campanulaceae): A review of phytochemistry: bioactivity and quality control. Journal of Natural Medicines 69, 1–21.
Codonopsis ovata Benth. Kashmir Bonnet Bellflower Campanulaceae Herb Column chromatography yielded five compounds: taraxerol acetate, apigenin, luteolin, apigenin 7-0-glucoside and luteolin-7-0-glucoside. 

have been used as traditional Chinese medicines since the Qing Dynasty, where they were claimed for strengthening the spleen and tonifying the lung, as well as
nourishing blood and engendering liquid.

Codonopsis ovata Benth. Varma, N. and Tandon, J.S., 1989. Constituents of Codonopsis ovata. International Journal of Crude Drug Research, 27(2), pp.105-108. Gao, S.M., Liu, J.S., Wang, M., Cao, T.T., Qi, Y.D., Zhang, B.G., Sun, X.B., Liu, H.T. and Xiao, P.G., 2018. Traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Codonopsis: A review. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 219, pp.50-70.
Codonopsis rotundifolia Benth. Tunde Jaeid Campanulaceae Herb

Cordifoliketone A, Cordifoliketone B, Coniferaldehyde,
Sinapinaldehyde, Coniferoside, Isoconiferin, Nervolan B-C,
Dillapiole (He et al., 2015)

Asthma, General weakness. Codonopsis rotundifolia Benth. He, J.Y., Ma, N., Zhu, S., Komatsu, K., Li, Z.Y., Fu, W.M., 2015. The genus Codonopsis (Campanulaceae): A review of phytochemistry: bioactivity and quality control. Journal of Natural Medicines 69, 1–21.
Colchicum luteum Baker Meadow Saffron Colchicaceae Herb 0.94% and 70% of total alkaloids, the major being colchicine 0.40% and 0.20% respectively. Colchicine analogs—decteyl thiocolchicine (DTC), decetylmethylcolchicine (DMC) and trimethylcolchicinic.  cytotoxic, phytotoxic, insecticidal activities Colchicum luteum Baker Khan, H., Tariq, S.A. and Khan, M.A., 2011. Biological and phytochemical studies on corms of Colchicum luteum Baker. Journal of Medicinal plants research, 5(32), pp.7031-7035.
Conium maculatum L. Mohar gasse, Mohar kuch, Faki fadyani Apiaceae Herb

Coniine, α-Pinene, Camphene, Limonen, Linalool, Camphene,
Limonene, Fenchyl acetate, Sabinene, Myrcene (Rastakhiz et al.,
2015)

Nervous problems, Cancer Conium maculatum L., Rastakhiz, N., Azar, P.A., Tehrani, M.S., Moradalizadeh, M., Larijani, K., 2015. Chemical constituents comparison of essential oils of aerial parts of Conium maculatum L. growing wild in Iran by hydrodistillation, microwave assisted hydro-distillation and solid phase microextraction methods. International Journal of Life Sciences 9, 48–50.
Convolvulus arvensis Field Bindweed Convolvulaceae Climber Phytochemical studies showed that Convolvulus arvensis L. contained alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, carbohydrates, sugars, mucilage, sterols, resin. tannins, unsaturated sterols/triterpenes, lactones and proteins Cytotoxic effect, Antioxidant effect, Vasodilating effect and Antidiarrhoeal effect. Convolvulus arvensis Al-Snafi, A.E., 2016. The chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Convolvulus arvensis and Convolvulus scammonia-A review. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy, 6(6), pp.64-75.
Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist Shaale-gasse, Shalle-lut Asteraceae Herb Limomene, Camphene, α & β-Pinenes, Caryophyllene
Germacrene D, α-Curcumene (Unnithan et al., 2014)
Cough, Fever, Internal injuries, Stomach problems, anti diarrhoeal and antihaemorrhoidal 

Unnithan, C.R., Muuz, M., Woldu, A., Reddy, D.N., Gebremariam, G., Menasbo, B., Hilawie, M., Teklu, T., 2014. Chemical analysis of the essential oil of Erigeron canadensis L. Unique Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences 02, 8–10.

Lis, A., Piggott, J.R. and Góra, J., 2003. Chemical composition variability of the essential oil of Conyza canadensis Cronq. Flavour and fragrance journal, 18(5), pp.364-367. Shah, N.Z., Muhammad, N., Khan, A.Z., Samie, M., Khan, H., Uddin, G. and Rauf, A., 2013. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant studies of Conyza bonarensis. Acad J Plant Sci, 6(3), pp.109-12.

Coriandrum sativum L. Danival Apiaceae Herb decenal, decanal, decen-1-ol and n-decanol. Other constituents present in fairly good amounts are tridecen-1-al , dodecenal, dodecanal, undecanol, and undecanal  The essential oil of C. sativum showed antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and therefore it can be used as a herbal medicine. Coriandrum sativum L. Matasyoh, J.C., Maiyo, Z.C., Ngure, R.M. and Chepkorir, R., 2009. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Coriandrum sativum. Food Chemistry, 113(2), pp.526-529.
Corydalis cashmeriana Royle Kashmir Corydalis Fumariaceae Herb Roots are used as tonic, diuretic and antiperiodic. The juice of plant suppresses urination. It is also prescribed in syphilitic and cutaneous affections. Corydalis cashmeriana Royle Sharma, V., Sharma, B.L. and Bharati, K.A., ETHNOBOTANICAL NOTES ON ALPINE MEDICINAL HERBS OF KEDARNATH RANGE OF GARHWAL HIMALAYAS.
Corydalis crassissima Fumariaceae Herb Lung problems Bhadrecha, P., Kumar, V. and Kumar, M., 2017. Medicinal plant growing under sub-optimal conditions in trans-himalaya region at high altitude. Def Life Sci J, 2, pp.37-45.
Corydalis diphylla Two-Leaved Corydalis Fumariaceae Herb Curic for Opthalmic disease. Corydalis diphylla Hussain, F., Islam, M. and Zaman, A., 2006. Ethnobotanical profile of plants of Shawar valley, district Swat, Pakistan. Int J Biol Biotechnol, 3(2), pp.301-7.
Corydalis govianiana Wall. Sangi-harb Fumariaceae Herb Decoction of aerial portion is administered to treat whooping cough, respiratory disorders, chest infections, and asthma. Corydalis govianiana Wall. Hussain, F., Islam, M. and Zaman, A., 2006. Ethnobotanical profile of plants of Shawar valley, district Swat, Pakistan. Int J Biol Biotechnol, 3(2), pp.301-7.
Corydalis ramose Wall. Ralkul Fumariaceae Herb A cold extract of the herb is used externally for eye diseases. Kapahi, B.K., Srivastava, T.N. and Sarin, Y.K., 1993. Traditional medicinal plants of Gurez (Kashmir)–an ethnobotanical study. Ancient science of life, 13(1-2), p.119.
Corydalis thyrsiflora Thyrse Corydalis Fumariaceae Herb Corydalis thyrsiflora Bhadrecha, P., Kumar, V. and Kumar, M., 2017. Medicinal plant growing under sub-optimal conditions in trans-himalaya region at high altitude. Def Life Sci J, 2, pp.37-45.
Cotula anthemoides L. Bobul Asteraceae Herb A new sulfonyl flavonol glucoside, 5,7,4′,5′-tetrahydoxyflavonol 2′-[propanoic acid-(2″ ′-acetoxy-1″ ′-sulfonyl)]-5′-O-β-α-glucopyranoside  The scavenging activity of isolated compounds against DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) was investigated by spectrophotometric methodology and Tyrosinase activity inhibition. Tadrent, W., Alabdul Magid, A., Kabouche, A., Harakat, D., Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, L. and Kabouche, Z., 2017. A new sulfonylated flavonoid and other bioactive compounds isolated from the aerial parts of Cotula anthemoides L. Natural product research, 31(12), pp.1437-1445.
Cuscuta europaea L. Kukili Pot Convolvulaceae Climber Chlorogenic acid, Quercetin-3-O-glucoside, Kaempferol-3-O-glucoside Plant sap is given approximately half teaspoonful twice a day, for a week as carminative. Plant extract is applied externally on affected area, twice a day for 14 to 28 days to treat psoriasis Cuscuta europaea L. Ahmad, A., Tandon, S., Xuan, T.D. and Nooreen, Z., 2017. A Review on Phytoconstituents and Biological activities of Cuscuta species. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 92, pp.772-795.
Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. Kukili pot, Gili Pot, Janeo-bal Convolvulaceae Climber The prevailing compounds were lauric acid (2.46%), ester compound (0.05%), alkanes (0.05), phenolic compound (0.08%), myristic acid (2.77%), plasticizer compound (4.15%), palmitolic acid (2.27%), palmitic acid (13.97%), diterpene (2.31%), stearic acid (1.68%), mono unsaturated fatty (5.19%), chlorine compound (2.16%), steroid (11.6%), alkaloid (1.78%), triterpenes (3.56%) and amino compound (39.27%). A decoction of the whole plant is used to treat jaundice. Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.

Rai, D.K., Sharma, V., Pal, K. and Gupta, R.K., 2016. Comparative phytochemical analysis of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. Parasite grown on north India by GC-MS. Trop Plant Res, 3(2), pp.428-443.

Raghuvanshi, D., Dhalaria, R., Sharma, A., Kumar, D., Kumar, H., Valis, M., Kuča, K., Verma, R. and Puri, S., 2021. Ethnomedicinal Plants Traditionally Used for the Treatment of Jaundice (Icterus) in Himachal Pradesh in Western Himalaya—A Review. Plants, 10(2), p.232.

Cynodon dactylon Pers. Dramun Poaceae Herb proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, flavonoids, carotenoids, alkaloids, glycosides and triterpenoides.  proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, flavonoids, carotenoids, alkaloids, glycosides and triterpenoides.  Ashokkumar, K., Selvaraj, K. and Muthukrishnan, S.D., 2013. Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.: An updated review of its phytochemistry and pharmacology. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 7(48), pp.3477-3483.
Cynoglossum canescens Willd. Krishkeot Solanaceae Herb

Cyanustine, Cynaustraline, Hexadecanoic acid, Methyl ester, β

−Sistosterol, α- Stigmastance-3, 6-dione, β −Hydroxy-
stigmasta-4-en-3-one, Daucosterol (Joshi et al., 2016)

Infertility, Potency Joshi, R.K., Satyal, P., Setzer, W.N., 2016. Himalayan aromatic medicinal plants: a review of their ethnopharmacology, volatile phytochemistry, and biological activities. Medicines 3, 6
Cynoglossum lanceolatum Forssk. Krishkeot Solanaceae Herb

Cyanustine, Cynaustraline, Hexadecanoic acid, Methyl ester, β

−Sistosterol, α- Stigmastance-3, 6-dione, β −Hydroxy-
stigmasta-4-en-3-one, Daucosterol (Joshi et al., 2016)

Infertility, Potency Joshi, R.K., Satyal, P., Setzer, W.N., 2016. Himalayan aromatic medicinal plants: a review of their ethnopharmacology, volatile phytochemistry, and biological activities. Medicines 3, 6
Cynoglossum micranthum Poir. Krishkeot Solanaceae Herb

Cyanustine, Cynaustraline, Hexadecanoic acid, Methyl ester, β

−Sistosterol, α- Stigmastance-3, 6-dione, β −Hydroxy-
stigmasta-4-en-3-one, Daucosterol (Joshi et al., 2016)

Infertility, Potency Cynoglossum micranthum Joshi, R.K., Satyal, P., Setzer, W.N., 2016. Himalayan aromatic medicinal plants: a review of their ethnopharmacology, volatile phytochemistry, and biological activities. Medicines 3, 6
Datura stramonium L. Datur Solanaceae Herb

Hyoscyamine, Atropine, Hyoscine, Meteloidine, Apohyoscine,
Scopolamine (Das et al., 2012)

Intestinal problems, Boils, Headache, Skin diseases, Worms, Asthma, Bronchitis, Stomach problem. Seed powder mixed with mustard oil is used externally to cure rheumatism. Seed decoction is used externally to cure the frostbite. Smoke of seeds is given to cure the toothache. Seed infusion is given to the horses as a tonic. Datura stramonium L., Das, S., Kumar, P., Basu, S.P., 2012. Phytoconstituents and therapeutic potentials of Datura stramonium Linn. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 14 (2), 4–7.
Delphinium cashmirianum Royle. Mori Ranunculaceae Herb 14-Acetyl-20-ethyl-1,8-dihydroxy-16,18-dimethoxylycoctonine, royleinine along with three more norditerpenoid alkaloids, isotalitazidine, condelphine and senbusine-C . Roots are collected when the plant is at the fruiting stage. Dried and crushed roots are given in small quantities with butter-milk to treat liver infections. It is considered to be poisonous, if taken in large quantities.  Delphinium cashmerianum

Ulubelen, A., Mericli, A.H., Mericli, F., Kolak, U., Arfan, M., Ahmad, M. and Ahmad, H., 2000. Royleinine, a new norditerpenoid alkaloid from Delphinium roylei. Heterocycles, 53(10), pp.2279-2283.

Sharma, P.K. and Singh, V., 1989. Ethnobotanical studies in northwest and Trans-Himalaya. V. Ethno-veterinary medicinal plants used in Jammu and Kashmir, India. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 27(1-2), pp.63-70.

Delphinium denudatum Jadwar Ranunculaceae Herb Many bioactive constituents are isolated including flavonoids, triterpenoids, alkaloids, including delphocurarine, staphisagrine, delphine, condelphine, denudatin, delnudine, delnuline, vilmorri anonymouse, vilmorrianone, a diterpenoid alkaloid.  In Unani medicine, Jadwár is considered a Tiryaqe-sumoom (Antidote to poison), Muqawwi-e-Asab (Nerve tonic), Muqawwi-e-Qalb (Cardiotonic), Mufarreh (Exhilarent), Musakkin (Sedative), Dafe Humma (Antipyretic), Mufatteh (Deobstruent) Delphinium denudatum Ulubelen, A., Mericli, A.H., Mericli, F., Kolak, U., Arfan, M., Ahmad, M. and Ahmad, H., 2000. Royleinine, a new norditerpenoid alkaloid from Delphinium roylei. Heterocycles, 53(10), pp.2279-2283.Sharma, P.K. and Singh, V., 1989. Ethnobotanical studies in northwest and Trans-Himalaya. V. Ethno-veterinary medicinal plants used in Jammu and Kashmir, India. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 27(1-2), pp.63-70.
Didymocarpus pedicellata Stone Flower Gesneriaceae Herb The main compounds were α- Humulen (62.15%), Cedroxyde (5.69%), and (-)-α- Panasinsanene (3.70%), Longifolol (2.80%), 1-Octen-3-one (2.32 %), E- Caryophyllene (1.96 %) and α-Cadina-4, 9-diene (1.77%). The main minor compounds was α-Terpineol (0.07 %), α-Cyclogeraniol (0.07%), Acetophenone (0.08%), Phenyl acetaldehyde (0.09 %), Geraniol (0.12%), Myrcene (0.13%) and (Z)-Hex-2-enol (0.83%). Didymocarpus pedicellata is used in the treatment of renal diseases particularly kidney stones and bladder Khare Didymocarpus pedicellata Prasad, K. and Chandra, D., 2017. Antioxidant Activity, Phytochemical and Nutrients of Didymocarpus pedicellata r. br from Pithoragarh, Uttarakhand Himalayas, India. J of Pharmacol& Clin Res, 4(3), pp.1-8.
Digitalis lanata woolly foxglove Plantaginaceae Herb Digitoxigenin, Digitoxin, Digoxigenin, Gluevatromonoside and Digitoxose Cardiovascular, cytotoxic, antidiabetic, antioxidant, insecticidal, immunological, hepato, neuro and cardioprotective effects. Digitalis lanata Bertol, J.W., Rigotto, C., de Pádua, R.M., Kreis, W., Barardi, C.R.M., Braga, F.C. and Simões, C.M.O., 2011. Antiherpes activity of glucoevatromonoside, a cardenolide isolated from a Brazilian cultivar of Digitalis lanata. Antiviral Research, 92(1), pp.73-80. Jograna, M.B., Patil, D.S. and Kotwal, S.V., 2020. Digitalis species a potent herbal drug: A review on their pharmacognosy and pharmacological activities. Journal of Current Pharma Research, 10(4), pp.3821-3831.
Digitalis purpurea Foxglove Plantaginaceae Herb HPLCanalysis revealed the presence of digoxin and digitoxin for all immersion frequencies. Diuretics Anti-arrhythmic drugs Antihypertensive drugs Vasodilators Anticoagulants. Digitalis purpurea Pérez-Alonso, N., Wilken, D., Gerth, A., Jähn, A., Nitzsche, H.M., Kerns, G., Capote-Perez, A. and Jiménez, E., 2009. Cardiotonic glycosides from biomass of Digitalis purpurea L. cultured in temporary immersion systems. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture (PCTOC), 99(2), pp.151-156. Phillipson, J.D. and Anderson, L.A., 1989. Ethnopharmacology and western medicine. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 25(1), pp.61-72.
Dioscorea deltoidea Wall.ex Griseb. Krisch, Kraeth Dioscoreaceae Climber

Diosgenin (Cortisone, pregnenolone, progesterone), Stigmasterol
(β-sitosterol, campestrol, ergosterol, brassicasterol, delta-7-
stigmasterol and delta-7-avenasterol), Sapogenins (Steroids or
triterpenes) (Dangwal and Chauhan, 2015)

Leaf decoction is used as eye drops to treat ophthalmic infections; to sharpen eyesight. Ophthalmic infections, Birth control, Rheumatism, Lice control, Swelling. Dioscorea deltoidea Wall.ex Dangwal, L., Chauhan, A.S., 2015. Dioscorea deltoidea Wall. ex Griseb. A highly threatened Himalayan medicinal plant, An overview. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences 6, 452–460.
Dipsacus inermis var. inermis Wopal Hakh Dipsacaceae Herb

Dipsacol, Triacontan-3-one, 8-Methyldotriacontan-7-ol (Zhao
and Shi, 2011)

Cough, Swelling, Body ache, Sore throat, Pain Dipsacus inermis Wall. Zhao, Y.M., Shi, Y.P., 2011. Phytochemicals and biological activities of Dipsacus species. Chemistry and Biodiversity 8, 414–430.
Dipsacus inermis Wall. Wopal Hakh Dipsacaceae Herb

Dipsacol, Triacontan-3-one, 8-Methyldotriacontan-7-ol (Zhao
and Shi, 2011)

Cough, Swelling, Body ache, Sore throat, Pain Zhao, Y.M., Shi, Y.P., 2011. Phytochemicals and biological activities of Dipsacus species. Chemistry and Biodiversity 8, 414–430.
Dipsacus strictus D. Don. Wopal Hakh Dipsacaceae Herb

Dipsacol, Triacontan-3-one, 8-Methyldotriacontan-7-ol (Zhao
and Shi, 2011)

Cough, Swelling, Body ache, Sore throat, Pain Zhao, Y.M., Shi, Y.P., 2011. Phytochemicals and biological activities of Dipsacus species. Chemistry and Biodiversity 8, 414–430.
Dracocephalum alpinum Turcz Lamiaceae Herb

Germacene, Pinene, Pinocamphone, Sabinene, Caryophyllene
oxide, α —Caryophyllene (Baiseitova et al., 2015)

Gastrointestinal and Stomach disorders. Baiseitova, A.M., Aisa, H., Janar, J., 2015. Chemical constituents of Dracocephalum nutans. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 8, 90–97
Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. Zinzer, Zypsi, Jimthiglae, Zimthigle Lamiaceae Herb

Citronellol, Cineole, Germacrene-D, Triterpenes— oleanolic acid,
ursolic acid, pomolic acid, 2α- hydroxyl ursolic acid;
Flavonoids— apigenin-7-O-rutinoside, luteolin, diosmetin;
Phenolic acids- rosmarinic acid, methyl rosmarinate (Zhang
et al., 2008)

Eye disinfectant, Hypertension, Cold, Ulcers Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth., Zhang, C., Li, H., Yun, T., Fu, Y., Liu, C., Gong, B., Neng, B., 2008. Chemical composition: antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Tibetan herbal medicine Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. Natural Product Research 22, 1–11.
Dracocephalum nutans L. Lamiaceae Herb

Germacene, Pinene, Pinocamphone, Sabinene, Caryophyllene
oxide, α —Caryophyllene (Baiseitova et al., 2015)

Gastrointestinal and Stomach disorders. Dracocephalum nutans L. . Baiseitova, A.M., Aisa, H., Janar, J., 2015. Chemical constituents of Dracocephalum nutans. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 8, 90–97
Dryopteris sp
Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants Jangli Javein, Ganhar Amaranthaceae Herb

Terpinyl acetate, p-Cymene, Terpinene ascaridole, Neral,

Geraniol (Koba et al., 2009)

Worms. The root extract combined with sugary water is given in the form of 2 spoonfuls daily at bed time to cure typhoid. 

α-amylase inhibitory, cytotoxic, leishmanicidal and antimicrobial potentials were exhibited by plant samples. D. ambrosioides revealed significant antioxidant, cytotoxic, antimicrobial and anti-diabetic potentials.

Dysphania ambrosioides (L.)

Koba, K., Catherine, G., Raynaud, C., Chaumont, J.P., Sanda, K., Laurence, N., 2009. Chemical composition and cytotoxic activity of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. essential oil from Togo. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 44, 435–440.

Bezerra, J.W.A., Costa, A.R., de Freitas, M.A., Rodrigues, F.C., de Souza, M.A., da Silva, A.R.P., Dos Santos, A.T.L., Linhares, K.V., Coutinho, H.D.M., de Lima Silva, J.R. and Morais-Braga, M.F.B., 2019. Chemical composition, antimicrobial, modulator and antioxidant activity of essential oil of Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants. Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases, 65 Zohra, T., Ovais, M., Khalil, A.T., Qasim, M., Ayaz, M. and Shinwari, Z.K., 2019. Extraction optimization, total phenolic, flavonoid contents, HPLC-DAD analysis and diverse pharmacological evaluations of Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants. Natural product research, 33(1), pp.136-142. pp.58-64.

Dysphania botrys (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants Kulkuli akh Amaranthaceae Herb

Elemol acetat, Seline-11-en-4α-ol, Selina-3,11-dien-6α-ol,
Elemol, α-Eudesmol acetat, α-Chenopodiol, Botrydiol (Andov
et al., 2014)

Parasitic worms, Constipation, Stomach & liver ailments, Asthma, Vomiting, Weakness. Dysphania botrys (L.) Andov, L.A., Karapandzova, M., Cvetkovikj, I., Stefkov, G., Kulevanova, S., 2014. Chemical composition of Chenopodium botrys L. (Chenopodiaceae) essential oil. Macedonian Pharmaceutical Bulletin 60, 45–51.
Elaeagnus rhamnoides (L.) A. Nelson Sastalulu, Chakdum, Tirku, Buru Elaeagnaceae Shrub

Hippophae cerebroside, Oleanolic acid, Ursolic acid, 19-α-
Hydroxyursolic acid, Dulcioic acid, 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-

furancarbox-aldehyde, Cirsiumaldehyde, Octacosanoic acid,
Palmitic acid,1-O-Hexadecanolenin (Zheng et al., 2009)

High antioxidant and high antibacterial activity. Zheng, R.X., Xu, X.D., Tian, Z., Yang, J.S., 2009. Chemical constituents from the fruits of Hippophae rhamnoides. Natural Product Research 23, 1451–1456.
Elsholtzia densa Benth Dense Himalayan Mint Lamiaceae Herb The leaf essential oil of E. densa was characterized by citral (52.2%), geranyl acetate (3.3%) and geraniol (3.1%), whereas the inflorescence essential oil of E. densa was found to be dominated by pinocarvone (51.9%), cispinocamphone (5.2%) and citronellyl acetate (3.4%). methanolic extract of Elsholtzia densa effectively prevented the oxidative damage and liver dysfunction in both the acute and chronic models of induced hepatotoxicity in rats Elsholtzia densa Benth Chauhan, A., Venkatesha, K.T., Padalia, R.C., Singh, V.R., Verma, R.S. and Chanotiya, C.S., 2019. Essential oil composition of leaves and inflorescences of Elsholtzia densa Benth. from western Himalaya. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 31(3), pp.217-222. Zargar, O.A., Bashir, R., Ganie, S.A., Masood, A., Zargar, M.A. and Hamid, R., 2018. Hepatoprotective potential of elsholtzia densa against acute and chronic models of liver damage in wistar rats. Drug research, 68(10), pp.567-575.
Epilobium laxum Lax Willowherb Onagraceae Herb Epilobium laxum
Epipactis latifolia All.
Equisetum arvense Linn. Bandak, Gandumgund Equisetaceae Herb Equisetum arvense contained alkaloids, carbohydrate, proteins and amino acids, phytosterols, saponins, sterols, ascorbic acid, silicic acid, phenol , tannin, flavonoids, triterpenoids, volatile oils and many other biological active constituents The pharmacological studies showed that it possessed antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, smooth muscle relaxant effects of the vessels and ileum, anticonvulsant, sedative, anti-anxiety, dermatological immunological, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, diuretic, inhibition of platelet aggregation, promotion of osteoblastic response, anti-leishmanial, and many other effects Equisetum arvense Linn. Al-Snafi, A.E., 2017. The pharmacology of Equisetum arvense-A review. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy, 7(2), pp.31-42.
Eremurus himalaicus Foxtail Lily Asphodelaceae Herb Phytochemical investigation of different extracts of Eremurus himalaicus revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids, phenolics, and cardiac glycosides as secondary metabolites  The aqueous extract is most potent in decreasing the blood glucose levels in normal rats and it might be producing this effect by a mechanism independent from the insulin secretion, for example, by the inhibition of endogenous glucose production or by the inhibition of intestinal glucose absorption  Eremurus himalaicus Mushtaq, A., Akbar, S., Zargar, M.A., Wali, A.F., Malik, A.H., Dar, M.Y., Hamid, R. and Ganai, B.A., 2014. Phytochemical screening, physicochemical properties, acute toxicity testing and screening of hypoglycaemic activity of extracts of Eremurus himalaicus baker in normoglycaemic Wistar strain albino rats. Biomed research international, 2014.
Erigeron canadensis L. Shaale-gasse, Shalle-lut Asteraceae Herb

Limomene, Camphene, α & β-Pinenes, Caryophyllene
Germacrene D, α-Curcumene (Unnithan et al., 2014)

Cough, Fever, Internal injuries, Stomach problems Erigeron canadensis L.= Unnithan, C.R., Muuz, M., Woldu, A., Reddy, D.N., Gebremariam, G., Menasbo, B., Hilawie, M., Teklu, T., 2014. Chemical analysis of the essential oil of Erigeron canadensis L. Unique Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences 02, 8–10.
Euphorbia helioscopia L. Gur-sochal Euphorbiaceae Herb

Helioscopinolide A & B, Scopoletin, Scoparone, Isoscopoletin,
Licochalone A, Quercelin, 7, 4-dihydroxy-5-methoxy flacanone,
2, 4-dihydroxy-6′-methoxydihydro- chalcone, Pinocembri (Geng
et al., 2012)

Euphorbia pilosa is much branch, milky latex bearing tall herb commonly used to treat bronchitis, Purgative, emetic, fistulous sores and asthma-related problems. 

Joint problems, Ringworm, Skin eruptions, Warts,
Constipation, Indigestion.

Euphorbia helioscopia L., Geng, D., Weng, L.J., Han, Y.Y., Yang, X., 2012. Chemical constituents from Euphorbia helioscopia. Advanced Materials Research 396, 1337–1340.
Euphorbia pilosa Linn. Burse Kachh Euphorbiaceae Herb 2,3,4-Trimethylpentane, 2,4-Dimethylhexane, Diisobutylene, n-Octane,  2-Ethyl-5-methyltetrahydrofuran, Ethylcyclohexane , isopropyl-Cyclohexane. A cold aqueous extract of the whole plant is used to cure fistular sores.
Euphorbia wallichii Hook. f. Guri-dud, Gur-sochal Euphorbiaceae Herb

Wallichanol A & B, Phorbol-13-acetate, Ingenol, Ingenol-3-
palmitate, Ingenol- 20-palmitate, 9,19-Cyclolart-25- en-3b,24(R)-
diol, α-Tocopherolquinone, Methyl gallate, Shikimic acid, Methyl
shikimate, 2,4-Dihydroxy-6-methoxyacetophenone, Quercetin,
Guavinoside C, Dsucrose (Yang et al., 2015)

Skin infections, Warts, Digestive problems, Dropsy, Nervous troubles, Asthma, Fistular sores.  Latex from green stems applied to treat fungal infection and foot and mouth diseases of the cattle. Purgative and digestive, decoction given in gout juice is used for nerve troubles and dropsy, also applied to warts and skin infections. Euphorbia wallichii Hook. Yang, D.S., Peng, W.B., Yang, Y.P., Liu, K.C., Li, X.L., Xiao, W.L., 2015. Chemical constituents from Euphorbia wallichii and their biological activities. Journal of Asian Natural Products Research 17, 946–951.
Euphrasia officinale Linn. Euphrasia officinale Linn.
Ferula jaeschkeana Vatke Sampharu, Hapath kanpoor Apiaceae Herb

Limonene (26.0%), p-Cymene, α-Pinene, α-Terpinen-4-ol,

Cubenol, δ-Selinene, Terpin-4-yl acetate, epi-Cubenol, α-
Gurjunene, cis-Ocimene, Isolongifolene, p-Menth-1- β, 4 α-diol

(Sahebkar and Iranshahi, 2011)

Gastric problems, Wound healing, Toothache, Bruises, Chest pain Ferula jaeschkeana Vatke, Sahebkar, A., Iranshahi, M., 2011. Volatile constituents of the genus Ferula (Apiaceae): A review. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants 14, 504–531.
Ficus carica Linn. Anjeer, Injeer Moraceae Tree Anthocyanins, Phenolic acids, Flavonoids Its fruit, root and leaves are used in the native system of medicine in different disorders such as gastrointestinal (colic, indigestion, loss of appetite and diarrhea), respiratory (sore throats, coughs and bronchial problems), inflammatory and cardiovascular disorders Ficus carica Linn. Patil Vikas, V., Bhangale, S.C. and Patil, V.R., 2010. Evaluation of anti-pyretic potential of Ficus carica leaves. Evaluation, 2(2), p.010.
Filipendula vestita (Wall. ex G. Don.) Maxim. Chitpava, Banhara Rosaceae Shrub Methyl salicylate, Salicaldehyde, Santene (Joshi et al., 2016) Wound healing Filipendula vestita (Wall. ex G. Don.) Maxim., Joshi, R.K., Satyal, P., Setzer, W.N., 2016. Himalayan aromatic medicinal plants: a review of their ethnopharmacology, volatile phytochemistry, and biological activities. Medicines 3, 6.
Foeniculum vulgare L. Badiyan Apiaceae Herb Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCeMS), and 28 components were identified. Trans-anethole (68.53%) and estragole (10.42%) The essential oil from fennel seeds, which was rich in trans-anethole, possessed good antibacterial activity against selected food-borne pathogens. Foeniculum vulgare L. Diao, W.R., Hu, Q.P., Zhang, H. and Xu, J.G., 2014. Chemical composition, antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of essential oil from seeds of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). Food control, 35(1), pp.109-116.
Fragaria nubicola (Lindl. ex Hook. f.) Lacaita Yangraich Rosaceae Herb Ellagic acid, acid-glycoside and various other glycosides. The fruits possess potential to have anti-inflammatory antioxidant and antineurodegenerative properties. Fragaria nubicola  (Lindl. ex Hook. f.) Anees, S., Dar, K.B., Bhat, A.H., Showkat Ahmad, S. and Hamid, R., 2018. Anti-Hyperlipidemic And Antioxidant Capacity of Active Extracts of Fragaria Nubicola in High Fat Diet Fed Hyperlipidemic Rats. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Research, 9(6), pp.2228-2237.
Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don Yellow Himalayan Fritillary Liliaceae Herb Verticinone, verticine, imperialine-3-β-D-glucoside. F. cirrhosa bulbus effectively protected against CSE-induced oxidative stress in RAW264.7 macrophages by suppressing ROS accumulation, increasing GSH level and improving HO-1 expression. Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don Liu, S., Yang, T., Ming, T.W., Gaun, T.K.W., Zhou, T., Wang, S. and Ye, B., 2020. Isosteroid alkaloids from Fritillaria cirrhosa bulbus as inhibitors of cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress. Fitoterapia, 140, p.104434.
Fritillaria imperialis crown imperial Liliaceae Herb teroidal alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, glycosides and many other compounds.  It possessed anticholinergic, cardiovascular, anticancer, insecticidal, platelet aggregation inhibition and many other pharmacological effects Fritillaria imperialis Al-Snafi, A.E., 2019. Fritillaria imperialis-A review. IOSR Journal of pharmacy, 9(3), pp.47-51.
Fritillaria roylei Hook.
Fumaria indica (Hausskn.) Pugsley Shahtar Fumariaceae Herb Tetrahydrocoptisine, narlumidine, methyl fumarate, protopine, bicuculine, and fumariline. In traditional systems of medicine, the plant is reputed for its anthelmintic, diuretic, diaphoretic, laxative, cholagogue, stomachic and sedative activities and is used to purify blood and in liver obstruction in ethnopharmacology. Fumaria indica (Hausskn.) Pugsley Gupta, P.C., Sharma, N. and Rao, C.V., 2012. A review on ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Fumaria indica (Fumitory). Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 2(8), pp.665-669.
Gagea gageoids
Galinsoga parviflora Cav. Marchawagan ghasa Asteraceae Herb

Triacontanol, Phytol, β-sitosterol, Stigmasterol, 7-Hydroxy-β-
sitosterol, 7-Hydroxystigmasterol, β-Sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucoside,

3,4-Dimethoxycinnamic acid, Protocatechuic acid, Fumaric acid,
Uracil (Mostafa et al., 2013)

Painful joints Galinsoga parviflora Cav. Mostafa, I., El-Aziz, E.A., Hafez, S., El-Shazly, A., 2013. Chemical constituents and biological activities of Galinsoga parvifl ora Cav. (Asteraceae) from Egypt. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C 1, 285–292.
Gaultheria trichophylla Himalayan snowberry Ericaceae Shrub flavonoids, Tannins, steroids and anthraquionones Gaultheria trichophylla Royle (Ericaceae) has long been used for various ailments in traditional systems of medicines; most importantly it is used against pain and inflammation Gaultheria trichophylla Alam, F. and Najum us Saqib, Q., 2015. Pharmacognostic standardization and preliminary phytochemical studies of Gaultheria trichophylla. Pharmaceutical biology, 53(12), pp.1711-1718.
Gentiana carinata  Dark Blue Gentian Gentianaceae Herb Whole plant heals local injuries and controls stomach disorders. Gentiana carinata Kumar G, P., Gupta, S., Murugan M, P. and Bala Singh, S., 2009. Ethnobotanical studies of Nubra Valley-A cold arid zone of Himalaya. Ethnobotanical leaflets, 2009(6), p.9.
Gentiana kurroo Royle Neel-kanth, Nilkanth, Kuru Gentianaceae Herb

Tannins, Alkaloids, Saponins, Cardiac glycosides, Terpenes,
Flavonoids, Phenolics (Wani et al., 2011)

Stomachache, Urinary infections, Inflamations Gentiana kurroo Royle, Wani, B.A., Ramamoorthy, D., Ganai, B.A., 2011. Preliminary phytochemical screening and evaluation of analgesic activity of methanolic extract of roots of Gentiana kurroo Royle in experimental animal models. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 3, 164–166.
Geranium pratense L. Gugchuk, Ringresh, Karipat Gentianaceae Herb Myricetin, Tryptophan (Bautista et al., 2015) Dysentery, Fever, Influenza, Pneumonia, Swellings Geranium pratense L., Bautista, M., Madrigal–Santillan, E., Morales–González, A., Gayosso–Delucio, J.A., Madrigal–Bujaidar, E., Chamorro–Cevallos, G., et al., 2015. An alternative hepatoprotective and antioxidant agent, the Geranium. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 12, 96–105.
Geranium sibiricum L. Eyamlomentok Gentianaceae Herb Corilagin, Geraniin (Bautista et al., 2015) It has been used to treat intestinal inflammation in traditional Korean folk medicine. Studies have examined its anti-oxidative and anti-proliferative activity in the Chang liver cells. Diarrhoea Geranium sibiricum L., Bautista, M., Madrigal–Santillan, E., Morales–González, A., Gayosso–Delucio, J.A., Madrigal–Bujaidar, E., Chamorro–Cevallos, G., et al., 2015. An alternative hepatoprotective and antioxidant agent, the Geranium. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 12, 96–105.
Geranium wallichianum D. Don ex Sweet Kao ashud, Kaw Gasse Gentianaceae Herb

Ursolic acid, β-Sitosterol, Stigmasterol, β-Sitosterol galactoside,
Herniarin, 2,4,6-trihydroxyethylbenzoate (Ismail et al., 2009)

Root is used in backache, sexual debility, joint pain, colic, jaundice, and kidney and spleen disorder. In different assay the crude extracts and different fractions of rhizomes and leaves showed varied degree of antimicrobial activities and enzyme inhibitions. It is also used for Blood ailments, Vision problems, Rheumatic pain, Toothache, Backache Delivery pain, Diarrhoea.

Geranium wallichianum D. Don, Ismail, M., Ibrar, M., Iqbal, Z., Hussain, J., Hussain, H., Ahmed, M., et al., 2009. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of Geranium wallichianum. Records of Natural Products 3, 193–197.
Glycine max L. Gabbe Muth Paplionaceae Herb

Phenol, 2,6-dimethoxy-, 2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 3,5-Dimethoxyacetophenone, 1,2-cyclopentanedione
and Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester.

The presence of phytochemicals with strong pharmacological actions like antimicrobial and antioxidants activities could be considered as sources of quality raw materials for food and pharmaceutical industries. Glycine max L. Lee, J.H., Baek, I.Y., Choung, M.G., Ha, T.J., Han, W.Y., Cho, K.M., Ko, J.M., Jeong, S.H., Oh, K.W., Park, K.Y. and Park, K.H., 2008. Phytochemical constituents from the leaves of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Food Science and Biotechnology, 17(3), pp.578-586.Alghamdi, S.S., Khan, M.A., El-Harty, E.H., Ammar, M.H., Farooq, M. and Migdadi, H.M., 2018. Comparative phytochemical profiling of different soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) genotypes using GC–MS. Saudi journal of biological sciences, 25(1), pp.15-21.
Glycyrrhiza glabra Shanger Paplionaceae Herb

The phytochemical screening
of the Glycyrrhiza glabra root revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, starches, phenolic
compounds, flavonoids, proteins, pectin, mucilage, saponins, lipids, tannins, sterols and steroids.

Research have come up with many therapeutic activities of licorice, a recent review paper summarized the pharmacological activities and discussed potential uses of Glycyrrhiza glabra for antitumor, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory,
immunoregulatory, and several other activities that contribute to the recovery and protection of the nervous, alimentary, respiratory, endocrine, and cardiovascular systems

Glycyrrhiza glabra Al-Snafi, Ali Esmail. "Glycyrrhiza glabra: A phytochemical and pharmacological review." IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 8, no. 6 (2018): 1-17. Thakur, A.K. and Raj, P., 2017. Pharmacological perspective of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn: A mini-review. J. Anal. Pharm. Res, 5(5), p.00156.
Hedysarum cachemirianum
Heracleum candicans Wall.ex DC. Kaindal, Krandel, Churu, Mirkul Apiaceae Herb

Germacrene D, 1, 8-cineole (11.8%), Sabinene, α-Pinene, β-
Ocimene, γ-Terpinene, cis-Sabinene hydrate, trans-Sabinene

hydrate, Linalool, Terpinen-4-ol, Germacrene D-4-ol,
Caryophyllene oxide, Pimaradiene, Sandaracopimara-8-15-diene
(Joshi, 2016)

H. candicans increases the antioxidant capacity of the liver and maintains hepatocyte function in the face of CCl4-
induced injury. 

Infertility, Gynaecological disorders, Joint pain,
Leucoderma.

Heracleum candicans Wall.ex DC., Joshi, R.K., 2016. Chemical constituents of leaf essential oils of Heracleum candicans Wall. ex DC. from western Himalaya of Uttarakhand, India. American Journal of Essential Oils and Natural Products 4, 1–4.
Hippophae rhamnoides L. Sastalulu, Chakdum, Tirku, Buru Elaeagnaceae Shrub

Hippophae cerebroside, Oleanolic acid, Ursolic acid, 19-α-
Hydroxyursolic acid, Dulcioic acid, 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-

furancarbox-aldehyde, Cirsiumaldehyde, Octacosanoic acid,
Palmitic acid,1-O-Hexadecanolenin (Zheng et al., 2009)

High antioxidant and high antibacterial activity.  Hippophae rhamnoides L. Zheng, R.X., Xu, X.D., Tian, Z., Yang, J.S., 2009. Chemical constituents from the fruits of Hippophae rhamnoides. Natural Product Research 23, 1451–1456.
Hyoscyamus niger L. Bazarbang Solanaceae Herb

Hyoscyamine, Apoatropine, Hyoscine, Skimmianine,
Scopolamine, Belladonines (Aparna et al., 2015)

Seed  powder  is  applied  on  gums  to  cure toothache. Asthma, Nervousness, Whooping cough. Powdered herb is used to cure asthmas and whooping cough. Hyoscyamus niger L., Aparna, K., Joshi, A.J., Vyas, M., 2015. Phyto–chemical and pharmacological profiles of Hyoscyamus niger Linn (Parasika Yavani)–a review. Pharma Science Monitor 6, 153–158.
Hypericum perforatum L. Chai gasse Hypericaceae Herb

D-Mannitol, Hypericin, Germacrene D, (E)-Caryophyllene, 2-
Methyloctane, α-Pinene, Bicyclogermacrene, (E)-β-Ocimene,
Sesqiuterpenoids, Monoterpenoids (Đorđević, 2015)

Rheumatism, Urinary irritation, Wounds. Hypericum perforatum L., Đorđević, A.S., 2015. Chemical composition of Hypericum perforatum L. essential oil. Advanced Technologies 4 (1), 64–68.
Inula orientalis Lam.
Inula racemosa Hook. f. Poshkar mool, Gugi Phool Asteraceae Herb

Alantolactone, isoAlantolactone, dihydro-Alantolactone,
dihydroiso-Alantolactone, Sitisterol, Daucosterol, Inunolide,
Aplotaxene,Phenylacetonitrile, Isonitrile (Wang et al., 2000)

Abdominal pain, Acidity, Worms, Inflammations, Burns, Asthma, Diarrhoea, Fever,Gastro-intestinal problems, Gynaecological & Liver disorders, Rheumatism, Wounds. Roots used as an expectorant and in veterinary medicine as a tonic and stomachic. Oil of the leaves is an anthelmintic,  also an expectorant and diuretic, the seeds are an aphrodisiac. Inula racemosa Hook. Wang, K., Liu, H., Zhao, Y., Chen, X., Hu, Z., Song, Y., Ma, X., 2000. Separation and determination of alantolactone and isoalantolactone in traditional Chinese herbs by capillary electrophoresis. Talanta 52, 1001–1005.
Inula royleana DC Poshkar mool, Gugi Phool Asteraceae Herb

Alantolactone, isoAlantolactone, dihydro-Alantolactone,
dihydroiso-Alantolactone, Sitisterol, Daucosterol, Inunolide,
Aplotaxene,Phenylacetonitrile, Isonitrile (Wang et al., 2000)

Abdominal pain, Acidity, Worms, Inflammations, Burns, Asthma, Diarrhoea, Fever,Gastro-intestinal problems, Gynaecological & Liver disorders, Rheumatism, Wounds. Roots used as an expectorant and in veterinary medicine as a tonic and stomachic. Oil of the leaves is an anthelmintic,  also an expectorant and diuretic, the seeds are an aphrodisiac. Wang, K., Liu, H., Zhao, Y., Chen, X., Hu, Z., Song, Y., Ma, X., 2000. Separation and determination of alantolactone and isoalantolactone in traditional Chinese herbs by capillary electrophoresis. Talanta 52, 1001–1005.
Inula royleana DC Punara, Poshkar Asteraceae Herb

Alantolactone, isoAlantolactone, dihydro-Alantolactone, dihydroiso-Alantolactone, Sitisterol, Daucosterol, Inunolide, Aplotaxene,Phenylacetonitrile, Isonitrile (Wang et al., 2000)

Decoction of the root is used as an expectorant and paste of the herb is used to cure some skin diseases. (Wang et al., 2000)
Iris ensata Japanese water iris Iridaceae Herb Phytochemical screening of the extract showed the presence of some common compounds like phenols, terpenoids, flavonoids, carbohydrate etc. The plant shows remarkable antioxidant potential and can be used for prevention or treatment of various oxidative related diseases Iris ensata Ganaie, A.A., Mishra, R.P. and Allaie, A.H., 2018. Antioxidant activity of some extracts of Iris ensata. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 7(2), pp.230-235.
Iris hookeriana R.C. Foster Mazar mund Iridaceae Herb resveratrol, resveratroloside, junipeginin C and isorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperidoside were isolated for the first time along with 3 known compounds viz piceid, irigenin and iridin from I. hookeriana  I. hookeriana rhizome exhibited significant anthelmintic activity against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep and has the potential to contribute to the control of gastrointestinal nematode parasites of small ruminants.
Iris kashmeriana Mazar mund Iridaceae Herb 5,7,8- trihydroxy-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one, 5,7,8-trihydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one, 5,7,8-triacetoxyoxy-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one and 6,7-diacetoxyoxy-3-(4- methoxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-  anthelmintic activity of I. hookeriana rhizome against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. Iris kashmeriana Alam, A., Jaiswal, V., Akhtar, S., Jayashree, B.S. and Dhar, K.L., 2017. Isolation of isoflavones from Iris kashmiriana Baker as potential anti proliferative agents targeting NF-kappaB. Phytochemistry, 136, pp.70-80.
Iris nepalensis Sonzal Iridaceae Herb Chemical investigation of chloroform extract of rhizomes of Iris nepalensis yielded new alkylated 1,4-benzoquinone derivative cytotoxic activities against human cancer cell lines Iris nepalensis Tantry, M.A., Ghazanfar, K. and Zargar, U.R., 2013. New alkylated benzoquinone from Iris nepalensis. Natural product research, 27(20), pp.1832-1836.
Juglans regia Linn. Dun Juglandaceae Tree carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, phenolics, flavonoids, alkaloids, proteins, steroids, and tannin. Juglans regia exhibits anti-oxidant, anti-histaminic, bronchodilator, anti-fertility, analgesic, immunomodulatory, anti-ulcer, anti-diabetic, hepatoprotective, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, lipolytic anti-hypertensive, neuroprotective, insecticidal, anticancer, wound healing and several other therapeutic properties Juglans regia Linn. Gupta, A., Behl, T. and Panichayupakaranan, P., 2019. A review of phytochemistry and pharmacology profile of Juglans regia. Obesity Medicine, 16, p.100142.
Jurinea Cetoatocair Benth. Dhupe Asteraceae Herb Dried roots are crushed to obtain a black powder, which is mixed with ghee used as “Kajal” to improve vision.
Jurinea macrocephala Benth. Dhup Asteraceae Herb β-sitosterol, lupenone, physcion, ptiloepoxide, 20, 21α-epoxytaraxastan-3β-ol and chlorogenic acid. All the compounds were isolated for the first time in roots. Root decoction is given in colio pain. Jurinea macrocephala Benth. Kumar, A. and Agnihotri, V.K., 2020. Phytochemical studies of Jurinea macrocephala roots from Western Himalaya. Natural product research, 34(3), pp.421-424. Kapahi, B.K., Srivastava, T.N. and Sarin, Y.K., 1993. Traditional medicinal plants of Gurez (Kashmir)–an ethnobotanical study. Ancient science of life, 13(1-2), p.119.
Lagenaria siceraria(Molina)Standl. Kashir Al Cucurbitaceae Herb

4-C-Glycosylflavone, 7-0-Glucosyl-6-C-glucoside apigenin, 6-C-
glucoside apigenin, 6-C-Glucoside luteolin, 7,4-O-Diglucosyl-6-C-
glucoside apigenin, Isovitexin, Isoorientin, Saponarin, Saponarin

4-O-glucoside 2, Quercetin (Prashar et al., 2014)

Cold, Cough, Chest pain, Fever, Kidney stone, Stomach problems. Lagenaria siceraria(Molina)Standl. Prashar, Y., Gill, N.S., Perween, A., 2014. An updated review on medicinal properties of Lagenaria siceraria. International Journal of Universal Pharmacy and Bio Sciences 3, 362–376.
Lagotis cashmeriana Rupr Kahmir Lagotis Plantaginaceae Herb Used against the Fever, Tea (kahwa) prepared from the seeds are used for cough and throat infections. Lagotis cashmeriana Rupr Shah, A., Bharati, K.A., Ahmad, J. and Sharma, M.P., 2015. New ethnomedicinal claims from Gujjar and Bakerwals tribes of Rajouri and Poonch districts of Jammu and Kashmir, India. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 166, pp.119-128.
Lamium album L. Zakhmi Dawa Lamiaceae Herb

Verbascoside, Isoscutellarein; 6,10,14-Trimethyl-2-
pentadecanone, 4-Hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, 3-Methyl

butanal, 2-Methyl butanal, 2-Pentanone, 2-Ethyl furan, n-
Pentanal, 4-Hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, (2E)-Hexenal, Ethyl

benzene, 2-Heptanol, 5-Methyl-3-heptanone, 3-Octanone, 2-

Pentyl furan, p-Cymene, Dihydroedulan, n-Tridecane, (Z)-β-
Damascone, n-Tetradecane, n-Pentadecane, n-Hexadecane, n-
Heptadecane (Morteza-Semnani et al., 2016)

Burns, Nose bleeding, Wounds Lamium album L., Morteza-Semnani, K., Saeedi, M., 2004. Essential oils composition of Nepeta cataria L. and Nepeta crassifolia Boiss: and Buhse from Iran. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants 7, 120–124.
Lavetera cashmeriana Camb. Sozposh, Reshma khatmi Malvaceae Herb Phytochemical analysis indicated presence of coumarins, sterioids, phenolics etc. Plant has Antimicrobial activity which could act as a safe & natural source of antimicrobial agents against various pathogenic microorganisms. Lavetera cashmeriana Camb. Mir, M.A., Shafi, A. and Wani, G.A., Investigation of Biochemical Analysis And Antibacterial Properties of Lavatera Cachemiriana.
Lychnis coronaria Rose campion  Caryophyllaceae Herb ethyl acetate extracts of S. coronaria leaves and branches showed the best antibacterial activity against S. aureus (11 mm) Lychnis coronaria Güvensen, N.C., Keskin, D. and Yildiz, K., 2016. COMPARISION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF SILENE CORONARIA (Desr.) Clairv. ex Rchb. AND SILENE DENIZLIENSIS Aytaç. GROWN IN TURKEY. Global Journal of Research on Medicinal Plants & Indigenous Medicine, 5(12), p.286.
Macrotomia benthami & DC.
Macrotomia benthamii (Wall.ex G.Don) A. DC. Kahzaban Boraginaceae Herb

Alkaloids, Phenols, Anthraquinones, Flavonoids, Saponins,
Glycosides, Tannins, Terpenoids (Shameem et al., 2015)

Decoction  of  rhizome  in  sugary  water  is sipped  to  alleviate  common  cold,  cough and fever; also a good blood purifier. Fever, Throat infection, Cold, Cough, Diuretic, Headache, Heart diseases, Jaundice, Cough, Pneumonia, Ulcer, Hair loss. Tea (kahwa) is used for cough. Shameem, N., Kamili, A.N., Javid, A.P., Hamed, R., Bandh, S.A., 2015. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of Arnebia benthamii (Wall ex. G. Don) Johnston-A critically endangered medicinal plant of North western Himalaya. Journal of Analytical Science and Technology 6, 36–43.
Malva neglecta Wallr. Sotzhal Malvaceae Herb alkaloids, tannins,saponins, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonoids, flavonols, proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, organic acids, protein, oils and sugars. It possessed antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcerogenic, hepatoprotective, anti-urolithiasis, anticholinesterase and angiotensin converting enzyme, α-amylase, αglucosidase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory inhibitory effects. Malva neglecta Wallr. Al-Snafi, A.E., 2019. Medical benefit of Malva neglecta-A review. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy, 9(6), pp.60-67.
Malva sylvestris L. Sotzhal Malvaceae Herb The results of preliminary phytochemical screening on Malva sylvestris revealed the amount of phyto-constituents including anthocyanin, vitamins, alkaloids, saponin,flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds the sample extracts showed impressive antiox-idant activity via their ability to scavenge various biologically relevant reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibit peroxidation. Malva sylvestris L. Mohajer, S., Taha, R.M., Ramli, R.B. and Mohajer, M., 2016. Phytochemical constituents and radical scavenging properties of Borago officinalis and Malva sylvestris. Industrial Crops and Products, 94, pp.673-681.
Malva verticillate Linn. Pudina kachh Malvaceae Herb hyperin and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside,  quinic acid and biochanin A M. verticillata demonstrates strong antioxidant activity Malva verticillate Linn. Ko, J.H., Nuankaew, W., Joo, S.W., Kim, H.G., Thi, N.N., Lee, Y.G., Kang, T.H. and Baek, N.I., 2018. Phenolic Compounds from the Aerial Parts of Malva verticillata and their Anti-diabetic Effect. Natural Product Communications, 13(7), p.1934578X1801300719.
Marrubium vulgare L. Trapaed, Troper Lamiaceae Herb

Eudesmol, Citronellol, Citronellyl formate, Germacrene D, 11-

oxomarrubiin, Vulgarcoside A, 3-Hydroxyapigenin-4′-O-(6”-O-p-
coumaroyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (Shaheen et al., 2014)

Arthritis, Boils, Cough, Eye ailments, Rheumatism Marrubium vulgare L., Shaheen, F., Rasoola, S., Shah, Z.A., Soomro, S., Jabeen, A., Mesaik, M.A., et al., 2014. Chemical constituents of Marrubium vulgare as potential inhibitors of nitric oxide and respiratory burst. Natural Product Communications 9, 903–906.
Matricaria chamomilla Fake Gasse Asteraceae Herb Sterols, triterpens, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and alkaloids. It is used as anti-cold, for gastrointestinal and digestive disorders, against Eczema, anti-estrogenic effect, anti-diabetic, for wound healing and as an anticancer.
Meconopsis aculeata Royle Gul-e-neelam Papavaraceae Herb Phenols, Alkaloids, Tannins (Ahmad et al., 2016) Cardiacailments, Headache,Liverdiseases&Lung diseases, Pharyngitis, Stomachache, Ulcer, Backache, Gynaecological disorders, Renal colic, Wound. Meconopsis aculeata Royle, Ahmad, M., Kaloo, Z.A., Ganai, B.A., Ganaie, H.A., Singh, S., 2016. Phytochemical screening of Meconopsis aculeata Royle an important medicinal plant of Kashmir Himalaya, a perspective. Research Journal of Phytochemistry 10, 1–9.
Meconopsis latifolia Himalayan blue poppy Papavaraceae Herb Phytochemical studies have revealed the presence of major isoquinoline alkaloids and flavonoids Tonic, analgesic Meconopsis latifolia Guo, Q., Bai, R., Zhao, B., Feng, X., Zhao, Y., Tu, P. and Chai, X., 2016. An ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and pharmacological review of the genus Meconopsis. The American journal of Chinese medicine, 44(03), pp.439-462. Majid, A., Ahmad, H., Saqib, Z., Rahman, I.U., Khan, U., Alam, J., Shah, A.H., Jan, S.A. and Ali, N., 2020. Exploring threatened traditional knowledge; ethnomedicinal studies of rare endemic flora from Lesser Himalayan region of Pakistan. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, 29, pp.785-792.
Mentha arvensis L. Pudina-jangli, Pudne Lamiaceae Herb Menthol, Menthone (Joshi et al., 2016) Aerial  portion  powder  mixed  with  dilute curd  (lassi)  is  given  to  cure  cough,  sore throat, indigestion and constipation. Constipation, Cough, Indigestion, Abdominal disorders, Diarrhoea, Rheumatic pain. Infusion of leaves  in combination with seeds of Coriandrumsativumis given to increase memory power. Mentha arvensis L., Joshi, R.K., Satyal, P., Setzer, W.N., 2016. Himalayan aromatic medicinal plants: a review of their ethnopharmacology, volatile phytochemistry, and biological activities. Medicines 3, 6.
Mentha longifolia L. Venni, Pudinakachh Lamiaceae Herb

cis-Piperitone epoxide, Piperitenone oxide, Carvone, Limonene,
Pulegone, Menthone, Thymol, β-Thujone, Carvacrol, (E)-
Caryophyllene, Ulegone, Isomenthone, 1,8-Cineole, Borneol,
Piperitenone oxide (Golparvar et al., 2013)

Diarrhoea, Headache, Rheumatism, Vomiting, Intestinal worms, Fever, Tonsillitis. Decoction of the dried leaves is used as carminative. Mentha longifolia L., Golparvar, A.R., Hadipanah, A., Gheisari, M.M., 2013. Chemical analysis and Identification of the components of two ecotypes of (Mentha Longifolia L.) in Iran province. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences 5, 1946–1950.
Mentha piperita L. Pudina, Pudne Lamiaceae Herb Menthol, Menthone, Menthyl acetate, Myrcene; 1,8-Cineole Menthofuran (Paul and Datta, 2011) Diarrhoea, Nausea, Vomiting, Intestinal and Stomach problems Mentha piperita L.,
Mentha sylvestris L. Venni, Pudinakachh Lamiaceae Herb

cis-Piperitone epoxide, Piperitenone oxide, Carvone, Limonene,
Pulegone, Menthone, Thymol, β-Thujone, Carvacrol, (E)-
Caryophyllene, Ulegone, Isomenthone, 1,8-Cineole, Borneol,
Piperitenone oxide (Golparvar et al., 2013)

Diarrhoea, Headache, Rheumatism, Vomiting, Intestinal worms, Fever, Tonsillitis. Decoction of the dried leaves is used as carminative.

Golparvar, A.R., Hadipanah, A., Gheisari, M.M., 2013. Chemical analysis and Identification of the components of two ecotypes of (Mentha Longifolia L.) in Iran province. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences 5, 1946–1950.Narcissus poeticus Pudina, Pudne Lamiaceae Herb

Menthol, Menthone, Menthyl acetate, Myrcene; 1,8-Cineole
Menthofuran (Paul and Datta, 2011)

Diarrhoea, Nausea, Vomiting, Intestinal and Stomach problems (Paul and Datta, 2011)
Narcissus poeticus Poet's daffodil Amaryllidoideae Herb

narwedine, homolycorine,masonine,lycoramine,10-O-demethylhomolycorine,galanthamine,seco-isopowellaminone,oduline,norlycoramine

cytotoxic activity and antiplasmodial
Narcissus pseudonarcissus Lent lily Amaryllidoideae Herb homolycorine, galanthamine, haemanthamine,crinine,lycorine ,tazettine Compounds isolated in sufficient amounts were assayed for their biological activities related to neurodegenerative processes in AD.
Nasturtium officinale L.
Nepeta cataria L. Gand-e-soi, Brarigasse Lamiaceae Herb

4a-α,7-α,7a-β-Nepetalactone; 1,8–Cineole, 4a-α, 7-β, 7a-α-
Nepetalactone; (E)-Caryophyllene; Citronellyl acetate (Morteza-
Semnani and Saeedi, 2004)

Dysentery, Fever, Toothache, Vomiting, Worms, Abdominal pain, Cough, Wounds. Decoction of shoot is used to treat dysentery and diarrhoea in the cattle. Nepeta cataria L., Morteza-Semnani, K., Saeedi, M., Akbarzadeh, M., 2016. Chemical composition of the essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of Lamium album L. Journal of Essenential Oil Bearing Plants 19, 773–777.
Nepeta discolour Royle ex Benth. Nyomalo, Shamalolo Lamiaceae Herb 1,8-Cineole, β-caryophyllene, p-Cymene (Joshi et al., 2016) Cold, Cough, Fever. Nepeta discolour Royle ex Benth., Joshi, R.K., Satyal, P., Setzer, W.N., 2016. Himalayan aromatic medicinal plants: a review of their ethnopharmacology, volatile phytochemistry, and biological activities. Medicines 3, 6.
Nepeta erecta (Royle ex Benth.) Benth. Eripantso Lamiaceae Herb

β-Caryophyllene, β-Caryophyllene oxide, Iridodial β-monoenol
acetate diastereomers, Iridodial β-monoenol acetate,
Isoiridomyrmecin (Bisht et al., 2012)

Dysentery, Stomach ache Nepeta erecta (Royle ex Benth.) Bisht, D.S., Joshi, S.C., Mathela, C.S., Padalia, R.C., 2012. Isoiridomyrmecin rich essential oil from Nepeta erecta Benth. and its antioxidant activity. Journal of Essential Oil Research 26, 29–35.
Nepeta govaniana (Wall. ex Benth.), Benth. Yellow catmint Lamiaceae Herb

Isoiridomymecin, Pregeijerene, Geijerene, Germacrene D, − β-
Caryophyllene, Torreyol (Joshi et al., 2016)

Fungal diseases. Nepeta govaniana (Wall. ex Benth.), Joshi, R.K., Satyal, P., Setzer, W.N., 2016. Himalayan aromatic medicinal plants: a review of their ethnopharmacology, volatile phytochemistry, and biological activities. Medicines 3, 6.
Nepeta laevigata (D. Don) Hand.-Mazz. Jatukpa, Longir Lamiaceae Herb

Citronellol, β −Caryophyllene, Germacrene D (19.4%), α
−Bisabolol oxide B; 1,8-Cineole, Caryophyllene oxide, Manool
(Joshi et al., 2016)

Pneumonia, Dysentery. Intestinal disorders and urine infection. Nepeta laevigata (D. Don) Joshi, R.K., Satyal, P., Setzer, W.N., 2016. Himalayan aromatic medicinal plants: a review of their ethnopharmacology, volatile phytochemistry, and biological activities. Medicines 3, 6.
Ocimum basilicum L. Babre beol Lamiaceae Herb

Methyl chavicol, Linolenic acid, Linalool, Estragole, Eugenol,
Tetradecanoic acid, n-Hexadecanoic acid, Phytol, Palmitin 2-
mono, Stigmasterol, β-Sitosterol (Ghani and Pai, 2015)

Fever, Hair fall, Headache, Muscular pain, Stomachache, Vomiting. Ocimum basilicum L., Ghani, S., Pai, S., 2015. Chemical composition, qualitative phytochemical screening and antioxidant potential of Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil. Indian Journal of Applied Research 5, 888–890.
Onosma hispidum Wall. Ex DC. Rattanjot Boroginaceae Herb 4- hydroxy-3-methoxy cinnamic acid (ferulic acid) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzoic acid (vanillic acid) The crude extract and the isolated fractions in general were found significantly active against the tested species of streptococci, staphylococci and corynebacterium. Onosma hispidum Wall. Ex DC. Naz, S., Ahmad, S., Rasool, S.A., Sayeed, S.A. and Siddiqi, R., 2006. Antibacterial activity directed isolation of compounds from Onosma hispidum. Microbiological research, 161(1), pp.43-48.
Orchis latifolia Linn. Nar-mada Orchidaceae Herb plant holds the reputation of being a ‘Vajikaran Rasayana’ the ayurvedic category of drugs having sexual stimulation properties Orchis latifolia Linn. Thakur, M. and Dixit, V.K., 2008. Ameliorative effect of fructo-oligosaccharide rich extract of Orchis latifolia linn. on sexual dysfunction in hyperglycemic male rats. Sexuality and Disability, 26(1), pp.37-46.
Origanum vulgare Jones Beyar-i-gasse, Marzanjosh Lamiaceae Herb

Origanol A and B, Ursolic acid, Oleanolic acid, β-Sitosterol

Triacontanol (Rao et al., 2013)

Plants have strong antioxidant activity. Fever, Menstrual suppression. Origanum vulgare Jones, Rao, G.V., Mukhopadhyay, T., Annamalai, T., Radhakrishnan, N., Sahoo, M.R., 2013. Chemical constituents and biological studies of Origanum vulgare Linn. Pharmacognosy Research 2013, 143–145.
Oxalis acetosella L. Chukchani Oxalidaceae Herb O. acetosella is very rich in β-carotene, ascorbic acid, tocopherols and xanthophylls, and that it is one of the best sources of flavonoids (flavonol glycosides and flavan-3-ols), especially rutin Leaf paste used to cure stomach and chest disorders in the cattle. Oxalis acetosella L. Šircelj, H., Mikulič-Petkovšek, M. and Batič, F., 2010. Antioxidants in spring leaves of Oxalis acetosella L. Food chemistry, 123(2), pp.351-357.
Oxalis corniculata Amrul Oxalidaceae Herb Carbohydrates and glycosides, phytosterols, phenolic compounds/tannins, flavonoids, proteins and aminoacids and volatile oils Antibacterial potential for the first time against important pathovars of phytopathogenic Xanthomonas pathovars. Oxalis corniculata Raghavendra, M.P., Satish, S. and Raveesha, K.A., 2006. Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of Oxalis corniculata; a known medicinal plant. My science, 1(1), pp.72-78.
Oxytropis cachemirianum Kashmir locoweed Oxalidaceae Herb Oxytropis cachemirianum
Paeonia emodi Royle Kuklipot Paeoniaceae Herb Monoterpene glycosides occur in the form of paeonin A , paeonin B , paeonin C, wurdin , benzoyl wurdin, oxypaeoniflorin paeoniflorin, and lactiflorin.

P. emodi is a medicinal plant of immense importance with a diverse pharmacological spectrum. There is a great scope for further screening of the plant against dropsy, Parkinson’s and other neurodegenerative disorders. The plant can also be evaluated against hyperlipidemia since oxidation of LDL leads to its
accumulation in the plasma and inhibits its clearance by liver.

Paeonia emodi Royle Zargar, B.A., Masoodi, M.H., Khan, B.A. and Akbar, S., 2013. Paeonia emodi Royle: Ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Phytochemistry letters, 6(2), pp.261-266.
Papaver rhoeus Common Poppy Papaveraceae Herb chemical analysis by TLC showed that the petals contain some anthocyanins, whereas no alkaloids were detected  It can be consumed raw or cooked, and has been traditionally used to treat nervousness, insomnia, digestive and respiratory disorders, baldness, eye infections, as well as measles treatment.  Papaver rhoeus Soulimani, R., Younos, C., Jarmouni-Idrissi, S., Bousta, D., Khalouki, F. and Laila, A., 2001. Behavioral and pharmaco-toxicological study of Papaver rhoeas L. in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 74(3), pp.265-274.Grauso, L., de Falco, B., Motti, R. and Lanzotti, V., 2021. Corn poppy, Papaver rhoeas L.: a critical review of its botany, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Phytochemistry Reviews, 20, pp.227-248.
Papaver somniferum L. Khash khash, Afeen Papaveraceae Herb

Morphine, Noscapine, Codeine, Thebaine, Papaverine, Narcotine
(Stranska et al., 2013)

Diarrhoea, Bronchitis, Pain killer, Male potency, Stomach disorder, Cough. Tea prepared from the fruit cover(1-2 gms) is used to cure the dry cough. For pain, dried milk of whole plant is taken. For cancer, grinded seed powder or oil of seeds is taken in small amounts. Papaver somniferum L., Stranska, I., Skalicky, M., Novak, J., Matyasova, E., Hejnak, V., 2013. Analysis of selected poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) cultivars, pharmaceutically important alkaloids. Industrial Crops and Products 41, 120–126.
Paraquilegia microphylla Social Worker Ranunculaceae Herb Two new triterpene saponins, paraquinosides A (1) and B (2) were isolated from the aerial parts of Paraquilegia microphylla Paraquilegia microphylla Xu, K., Zhang, P., Liao, X., Peng, S., Wang, M. and Ding, L., 2010. Two new triterpene saponins from the aerial parts of Paraquilegia microphylla. Fitoterapia, 81(6), pp.581-585.
Pedicularis pectinata Wall. Khara Scrophulariaceae Herb fatty acids, alkaloids, steroids, lignans, neo-lignans, tannins, ionones, phenylpropanoid glycosides, phenylethanoid glycosides, flavonoids, xanthones, iridoids, seco-iridoids, phenyl-glycosides, organic acids, polyols, saccharides, and amino acids. To cure the Swellings and stomach pain due to intestinal infection Pedicularis pectinata Wall. Frezza, C., Venditti, A., Toniolo, C., De Vita, D., Serafini, I., Ciccòla, A., Franceschin, M., Ventrone, A., Tomassini, L., Foddai, S. and Guiso, M., 2019. Pedicularis L. genus: Systematics, botany, phytochemistry, chemotaxonomy, ethnopharmacology, and other. Plants, 8(9), p.306. Singh, K.N., 2012. Traditional knowledge on ethnobotanical uses of plant biodiversity: a detailed study from the Indian western Himalaya. Biodiversity Research and Conservation, 28, p.63.
Pedicularis pyramidata Pyramid Lousewort Scrophulariaceae Herb Flavonoids,Polyphenols,glycosaponins antiplasmodic, antimicrobial Pedicularis pyramidata
Peganum harmala Wild rue Nitrariaceae Herb harmalol, harmaline, and harmine. Harmine is the most studied among these naturally occurring alkaloids P. harmala has been used intraditional medicines for the relief of pain and as an antiseptic agent. P. harmala also have antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antitumor, antileishmanial, insecticidal and cytotoxic activities and hepatoprotective and antinociceptive effects.  Peganum harmala Asgarpanah, J. and Ramezanloo, F., 2012. Chemistry, pharmacology and medicinal properties of Peganum harmala L. African Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology, 6(22), pp.1573-1580.
Persicaria alpina (All.) H. Gross Tsokemuth Polygonaceae Herb GC-MS analysis revealed thirteen main compounds as dodecanal (54%), decanal (15%), trans-caryophyllene (8%), cyclododecane (7%) and α-humulene (5%). Leaf paste used to treat indigestion in the cattle. Persicaria alpina (All.) H. Gross
Phlomis bracteoasa Purple Jerusalem Sage  Lamiaceae Herb Literature survey of Phlomis bracteosa revealed the presence of different classes of natural product including (monoterpene, diterpene, triterpene, flavanoid and saponin. The plant is traditionally reported for its use for the treatment of Bone fractures, Sinus congestion, lymp fluid disorder and indigestion Phlomis bracteoasa Ullah, R., Hussain, I. and Ahmad, S., 2013. Phytochemical and biological evaluation of phlomis bracteosa: a review. Life Science Journal, 10(7s).
Phytolacca acinosa Indian poke Phytolaccaceae Herb A new triterpenoid saponin from the roots of Phytolacca acinosa Rhizome is powdered & consumed as solutionwhile leaves and barks are crushed& extract is applied externally on the affected area. Phytolacca acinosa Chetri, B.K., Wangdi, P. and Penjor, T., 2018. Ethnomedicinal practices in kilikhar, mongar. Asian Plant Research Journal, pp.1-13.
Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Kod, Kutki Scrophulariaceae Herb

Picroside-I, II,III, IV, V; Picrorhizin, Kutkoside, Kurrin, Kuthinol,
Kutkiol, Kutkisterol, Kutkoside, Androsin, Apocynin,
Cucurbitacin, D-Mannitol (Bhattacharjee et al., 2013)

Dropsy, Fever, Rheumatic arthritis, Intestinal infection, Joint pain, Roundworm, Stomach problems, Whooping Cough, Bronchial asthma, Gynaecological disorders, Jaundice, Liver ailments. Powdered roots are given to cure hepatic complaints especially in Jaundice. Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth., Bhattacharjee, S., Bhattacharjee, S., Bhattacharya Jana, S., Baghel, D.S., 2013. A review on medicinally important species of Picrorhiza. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Bio-science 2, 1–16.
Pimpinella diversifolia DC. Hyo-kachh Apiaceae Herb Almost 78% of the oil is made up of eight phenylpropanoids with oxygen substituents at C-2 and C-5 of the aromatic ring; the remaining 20% is made up of C10 (5.8%), C12 (6.5%) and C15 (6.7%) hydrocarbons. Oxygenated terpenes including 4 unidentified sesquiterpene alcohols make up 2.1% of the oil. Hot aqueous extract is used as carminative. Pimpinella diversifolia DC.
Plantago lanceolata L. Gul, Phatal Kachh Plantaginaceae Herb p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, gallic and chlorogenic acid, besides apigenin, luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside  antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity Plantago lanceolata L. Beara, I.N., Lesjak, M.M., Orčić, D.Z., Simin, N.Đ., Četojević-Simin, D.D., Božin, B.N. and Mimica-Dukić, N.M., 2012. Comparative analysis of phenolic profile, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity of two closely-related Plantain species: Plantago altissima L. and Plantago lanceolata L. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 47(1), pp.64-70.
Plantago major Broadleaf plantain Plantaginaceae Herb

Flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolic
acid derivatives, iridoid glycosides, fatty acids, polysaccharides and vitamins

Plantago major is effective as a woundhealer, as well as an antiulcerative, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antibacterial, and antiviral agent. It also combats fatigue and cancer, is an antioxidant and a free radical scavenger. Plantago major Adom, M.B., Taher, M., Mutalabisin, M.F., Amri, M.S., Kudos, M.B.A., Sulaiman, M.W.A.W., Sengupta, P. and Susanti, D., 2017. Chemical constituents and medical benefits of Plantago major. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 96, pp.348-360.
Plectranthus rugosus Wall Sloi Lamiaceae Shrub major compounds were germacrene-D (9.7%), β-caryophyllene (7.6%), dehydroabietane (5.2%), ar-curcumene (5.0), trans-ferruginol (3.3%), α-cadinol (3.2%), T-muurolol (2.3%), p-Cymene (3.2%) and γ-terpinene (2.0%). The essential oil of Rabdosia rugosus showed insignificant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity but shows significant antipyretic, myorelaxant and antimicrobial activity. Plectranthus rugosus Wall Singh, P., Kumar, R., Prakash, O., Pant, A.K., Kumar, M., Isidorov, V.A. and Szczepaniak, L., 2019. Chemical composition, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, myorelaxant, antibacterial and antifungal activity of rabdosia rugosus wall.(Syn. Plectranthus rugosus Wall.). Journal of Medicinal Herbs and Ethnomedicine, 5, pp.8-15.
Pleurospermum candollei Paper Cup Flower Apiaceae Herb luteolin 7-O-glucoside (1), oxypeucedanin hydrate (2), pabulenol (3), bergapten (4), heptadecanoic acid (5), (E)-isoelemicin (6), trans-asarone (7), α-linolenic acid (8), and isoimperatorin (9) Whole plant is commonly used for abdominal problems, stomach disorders, decrease cholesterol, blood pressure, heart problems and gastric troubles. Pleurospermum candollei Khan, S.W., Abbas, Q., Hassan, S.N., Khan, H. and Hussain, A., 2015. Medicinal Plants of Turmic Valley (Central Karakoram National Park), Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. Journal of Bioresource Management, 2(2), p.11.
Podophyllum hexandrum Royle Van vangun, Ban kakri Podophyllaceae Herb

Podophyllotoxin, Tannin, Podophyllin, Podophyllic acid,
Podophylloquercin, Peltatin, Picropodophyllin (Hameed et al., 2014)

Skin diseases, Boils, Diarrhoea, Gynaecological disorders, Liverailments, Menstrual disorder, Skin diseases, Tumour, Acidity. The pericarp of mature red fruit used to treat eye wounds of cattle. Powdered roots are used in hepatic enlargement. For acidity and diarrhea juice of fruits or extract of roots is taken. For heart diseases, extract of root is taken. Podophyllum hexandrum Hameed, I., Ullah, A., Murad, W., Khan, S., 2014. Podophyllum hexandrum Royle. Journal of Agricultural Science 4, 331–338.
Polygonatum oppositifolium (Wall.) Royle Doodedaani Asparagaceae Herb Polygonatum oppositifolium  (Wall.) Royle Hynniewta, S.R. and Kumar, Y., 2008. Herbal remedies among the Khasi traditional healers and village folks in Meghalaya.
Polygonatum verticillatum (L.) All. Mishri, Mithadodhu, Doodedaani Asparagaceae Herb

α-Bulnesene, Linalyl acetate, Eicosadienoic, Pentacosane,
Piperitone, Docasane, Diosgenin, Santonin, Calarene (Saboon
et al., 2016)

Menstrual irregularities, Urinary infections, Backache. Ariel part given to milch animals to increase milk yield. Polygonatum verticillatum Saboon, Bibi, Y., Arshad, M., Sabir, S., Shoaib, M., Amjad, et al., 2016. Pharmacology and biochemistry of Polygonatum verticillatum, A review. Journal of Coastal Life Medicine 4, 406–415.
Polygonum affinis. The Himalayan bistort Polygonaceae Herb Polygonum affinis.
Polygonum viviparum Linn. Churkee Polygonaceae Herb possesses anti-inflammatory actions in macrophages and works through a novel mechanism involving Nrf2 actions and HO-1. Polygonum viviparum Linn. Cheng, H.W., Lee, K.C., Cheah, K.P., Chang, M.L., Lin, C.W., Li, J.S., Yu, W.Y., Liu, E.T. and Hu, C.M., 2013. Polygonum viviparum L. inhibits the lipopolysaccharide‐induced inflammatory response in RAW264. 7 macrophages through haem oxygenase‐1 induction and activation of the Nrf2 pathway. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 93(3), pp.491-497.
Polymonium caerulum Jacob's-ladder Polemoniaceae Herb GC–MS performed after silanization enabled the identification of carbohydrates, fatty acid esters, amino acids and carboxylic acids antimicrobial, antimalarial, anti-leishmanial and antitrypanosomaL activity, cytotoxicity towards mammalian cells – HEK293 and Vero cell lines, both originating from kidney and also against pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Polymonium caerulum Łaska, G., Sieniawska, E., Świątek, Ł., Zjawiony, J., Khan, S., Boguszewska, A., Stocki, M., Angielczyk, M. and Polz-Dacewicz, M., 2019. Phytochemistry and biological activities of Polemonium caeruleum L. Phytochemistry Letters, 30, pp.314-323.
Portulaca oleraceae Nuner Portulacaceae Herb 5-hydroxy-1-p-coumaric acyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid-6-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, 5-hydroxy-1-ferulic acyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid-6-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, 5-hydroxy-1-(p-coumaric acyl-7′-O-β-d-glucopyranose)-2,3-dihydro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid-6-O-β-d-glucopyranoside,  It has been used as a folk medicine in manycountries as a diuretic, febrifuge, antiseptic, antispasmodic and vermifuge. Portulaca oleraceae Xiang, L., Xing, D., Wang, W., Wang, R., Ding, Y. and Du, L., 2005. Alkaloids from Portulaca oleracea L. Phytochemistry, 66(21), pp.2595-2601.
Potentilla anserine Silverweed Rosaceae Herb Different groups of compounds such as chlorogenic acid, kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside, acacetin 7-O-rutinoside, and genistein were reported for the first time in this species with mild discomforts, mild inflammation of the oral and pharyngeal mucosa, tooth ache Potentilla anserine Mari, A., Lyon, D., Fragner, L., Montoro, P., Piacente, S., Wienkoop, S., Egelhofer, V. and Weckwerth, W., 2013. Phytochemical composition of Potentilla anserina L. analyzed by an integrative GC-MS and LC-MS metabolomics platform. Metabolomics, 9(3), pp.599-607. Tomczyk, M. and Latté, K.P., 2009. Potentilla—A review of its phytochemical and pharmacological profile. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 122(2), pp.184-204.
Potentilla atrosanguinea Himalayan cinquefoil Rosaceae Herb p-coumaric acid, rutin, tilirosid and kaempferol were quantified as others were in lesser amount Diarrhoea, bleeding, influenza,cough, parotitis, lymphadenitis,hepatitis, scare, numbness of limbs, dysmenorrhea, ulcer Potentilla atrosanguinea Walia, M., Kumar, P., Singh, B. and Agnihotri, V.K., 2018. UPLC–DAD quantification of chemical constituents of Potentilla atrosanguinea roots and their antioxidant activity. Journal of food science and technology, 55(10), pp.4337-4345. Tomczyk, M. and Latté, K.P., 2009. Potentilla—A review of its phytochemical and pharmacological profile. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 122(2), pp.184-204.
Potentilla nepalensis Ratanjot Rosaceae Herb Root juice employed in urinary inflammation. Chakrata, 1460. Potentilla nepalensis Jain, S.P. and Puri, H.S., 1984. Ethnomedicinal plants of jaunsar-bawar hills, uttar pradesh, india. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 12(2), pp.213-222.
Primula denticulata Drumstick primula Primulaceae Herb β–Caryophyllene, γ-Muurolene, γ-Terpinene, Caryophyllene oxide (Joshi et al., 2016) For diarrhea and fever decoction or extract of leaves is taken. For inflammation, crushed leaves are applied on affected part. Primula denticulata Colombo, P.S., Flamini, G., Rodondi, G., Giuliani, C., Santagostini, L. and Fico, G., 2017. Phytochemistry of European Primula species. Phytochemistry, 143, pp.132-144.
Primula macrophylla Moorcroft's Primrose Primulaceae Herb MACROPHYLLICIN, A SAPONIN IS DERIVED FROM PRIMULA MACROPHYLLA  antitumor potential of Primula macrophylla extracts in human colon cancer cell line Primula macrophylla Ahmad, V.U., Shah, M.G., Mohammad, F.V. and Baqai, F.T., 1993. Macrophyllicin, a saponin from Primula macrophylla. Phytochemistry, 32(6), pp.1543-1547. Shou, D.W. and Zheng, Y.L., 2017. Antitumor activity, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction in human colon cancer cell line by Primula macrophylla extracts. ||| Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology|||, 12(2), pp.101-106.
Primula rosea Himalayan meadow primrose Primulaceae Herb Linalyl acetate, Linalool, α-Terpineol, α-Pinene, 1.8-Cineole, Limonene, β-Caryophyllene, β-Terpineol (Džamić et al., 2008) Woundhealing, eye problem,high fever, cough in child Primula rosea

(Džamić et al., 2008)

Khan, K.U., Shah, M., Ahmad, H., Ashraf, M., Rahman, I.U., Iqbal, Z., Khan, S.M. and Majid, A., 2015. Investigation of traditional veterinary phytomedicines used in Deosai Plateau, Pakistan. Global Vet, 15(4), pp.381-388.

Prunella vulgaris L. Kal-e-veoth Lamiaceae Herb

Ursolic acid, β-Amyrin, Quercetin, Quercetin-3-O-β-D-
galactoside, α-Spinasterol, Stigmasterol, β-Sitosterol (8),

Daucosterol, Saponins, Alkaloids, Phenolics, Tannins,
Triterpenoid glycosides (Gu et al., 2013)

The  hot  water  bath  of  flowering  tops  is used  to  cure  headache,  fever, rheumatism, and body muscular pain. Swellings, Brain, Breathing, Gastric, Liver and Muscular disorders, Headache, Wounds, Piles, Rheumatism. Decoction of aerial part used to treat stomach and liver disorders of the cattle. Prunella vulgaris L., Gu, X., Li, Y., Mu, J., Zhang, Y., 2013. Chemical constituents of Prunella vulgaris. Journal of Environmental Sciences 25, 161–163.
Ranunculus muricatus L. Kakodel Ranunculaceae Herb The phytochemical screening of R. muricatus has revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthocyanins, carbohydrates, coumarins, phenolics and phytosterols (Ibrar & Samreen 2012), along with cardioactive glycosides, tannins and saponins (Aslam et al. 2013).  Phytochemical analysis of R. muricatus and subsequent isolation and characterisation techniques revealed the presence of a new metabolite, named as ranuncoside which showed potent free radical scavenging activity. The novel isolated compound exhibited lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase inhibitory properties Ranunculus muricatus L. Raziq, N., Saeed, M., Ali, M.S., Zafar, S., Shahid, M. and Lateef, M., 2017. A new glycosidic antioxidant from Ranunculus muricatus L.(Ranunculaceae) exhibited lipoxygenasae and xanthine oxidase inhibition properties. Natural product research, 31(11), pp.1251-1257.
Rheum australe D. Don. Pumb-e-hak, Pamb-e- chalan, Revand chini Polygonaceae Herb

Anthraquinones (Chrysophanol, Emodin, Aloe-emodin, Physcion,
Rhein), Stilbenes (Piceatannol, Resveratrol, pterostilbene)
(Rokaya et al., 2012)

Paste  of  rhizome  powder  in  water  is  used to cure wounds of body, and winter frost of external body parts.  Abdominal pain, Boils, Bone fracture, Cough, Wounds, General weakness, Indigestion, Internal injuries, Joint disorders, Mumps, Muscular swelling, Rheumatic pain, Stomach problem, Tonsillitis, Ulcer Rheum australe D. Don. Rokaya, M.B., Maršík, P., Münzbergová, Z., 2012. Active constituents in Rheum acuminatum and Rheum australe (Polygonaceae) roots: a variation between cultivated and naturally growing plants. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 41, 83–90.
Rheum emodi Wall. Pumb-e-hak, Pamb-e- chalan, Revand chini Polygonaceae Herb

Anthraquinones (Chrysophanol, Emodin, Aloe-emodin, Physcion,
Rhein), Stilbenes (Piceatannol, Resveratrol, pterostilbene)
(Rokaya et al., 2012)

Paste  of  rhizome  powder  in  water  is  used to cure wounds of body, and winter frost of external body parts.  Abdominal pain, Boils, Bone fracture, Cough, Wounds, General weakness, Indigestion, Internal injuries, Joint disorders, Mumps, Muscular swelling, Rheumatic pain, Stomach problem, Tonsillitis, Ulcer

Rokaya, M.B., Maršík, P., Münzbergová, Z., 2012. Active constituents in Rheum acuminatum and Rheum australe (Polygonaceae) roots: a variation between cultivated and naturally growing plants. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 41, 83–90.

Aslam, M., Dayal, R., Javed, K., Fahamiya, N., Mujeeb, M. and Husain, A., 2012. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical evaluation of Rheum emodi Wall. Journal of Current Pharma Research, 2(2), p.471.

Rheum spiciforme Spiked Rhubarb Polygonaceae Herb phenolics, flavonoids and saponins, terpenoids Plant has strong antioxidant potential Rheum spiciforme Bhat, A.H., Dar, K.B., Sofi, M.A., Dar, S.A., Zargar, M.A., Masood, A. and Ganie, S.A., 2018. Rheum spiciforme Royle—the medicinal herb with positive modulatory effect on controlled in vitro oxidative stress.
Rheum webbanium Royle Pumb-e-hak, Pamb-e-chalan Polygonaceae Herb

Rhein, Emodin, Aloe-emodin, Physcion, Chrysophamol,
Rhaponticin, Rhapontigenin, Tannins, Sennosides, Catechins,
Gallic acid, Cinnaminic acid (Tayade et al., 2012)

Rheumatic pain, Wounds, Chronicle bronchitis, Piles. Rhizome paste used to treat wounds and scabies; decoction of rhizome given to treat mumps in the sheep. Rheum webbanium Royle, Tayade, A., Dhar, P., Ballabh, B., Kumar, R., Chaurasia, O.P., Bhatt, R.P., et al., 2012. Rheum Webbianum Royle, A potential medicinal plant from trans–Himalayan cold deserts of Ladakh, India. Plant Archives 12, 603–606.
Rhodiola himalensis Himalayan Rhodiola Crassulaceae Herb Infection Of Teeth Rhodiola himalensis Dar, P.A., Rashid, N., Parwez, A. and Kalam, A., 2018. Ethnomedicinal practices of Kashmir valley: A. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 7(6), pp.278-284.
Rhododendron anthopogon D. Don Dwarf Rhododendron Ericaceae Shrub Used as good decongestant and is antispasmodic for the respiratory system, also known to help reduce inflammation , tonic for the adrenal glands Rhododendron anthopogon D. Don Paudel, P.N. and Gyawali, R., 2014. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activities of some selected medicinal plants of Nepal. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Archive, 5, pp.84-92.
Rhododendron campanulatum D. Don Bell Rhododendron Ericaceae Shrub The phytochemical studies showed the presence of terpenoids in the petroleum and methanol extracts, steroids in the diethyl ether and chloroform extracts, tannins in the diethyl ether and methanol extracts, and glycosides, flavonoids, and saponins in the methanol extract. plant exhibits significant antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria Rhododendron campanulatum D. Don Kathmandu, N., 2011. Phytochemical and antibacterial properties of Rhododendron campanulatum from Nepal. Journal of Traditional Medicines, 6(6).
Rosa damascena Herrm. Jangli-gulab Rosaceae Herb

Phenylethyl alcohol, 4-Amino-furazan-3-carboxylic acid,
Citronellol, 2-trifluoromethylbenzoic acid, 2-octyl ester,

Undecanoic acid isopropyl ester, 2-Amino-propionic acid, α-
Pinene, Nonadecane, N-Butyl-2-decanamine (Koksal et al., 2015)

Asthma, Bronchitis, Chickenpox, Cold, Cough, Diarrhoea, Fever, Headache, Measles, Muscular pain, Skin diseases, Throat infection Rosa damascena Herrm., Koksal, N., Aslancan, H., Sadighazadi, S., Kafkas, E., 2015. Chemical investigation on Rose damascena Mill. volatiles; Effects of storage and drying conditions. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum-Hortorum Cultus 14, 105–114.
Rosa sp.
Rubia cordifolia Linn. Manjithi Rubiaceae Herb Rubicoumaric acid and rubifolic acid isolated from Rubia cordifolia It used for the treatment of cancers, tuberculosis, rheumatism, hematemesis, metrorrhagia, epistaxis, contusion and menoxenia in the Chinese traditional medicine Rubia cordifolia Linn. Srinagar, S., Ethnomedicinal survey of shopian, Kashmir (J&K), India.
Rubus fuecticorus Linn. Blackberry Rosaceae Herb Fruits are edible, roots extracts is an emetic. Rubus fuecticorus Linn. Srinagar, S., Ethnomedicinal survey of shopian, Kashmir (J&K), India.
Rumex acetosa Obej Polygonaceae Herb polyphenols, tanins, phenolic acid and antraquinones seeds are used in therapy Rumex acetosa Bello, O.M., Fasinu, P.S., Bello, O.E., Ogbesejana, A.B., Adetunji, C.O., Dada, A.O., Ibitoye, O.S., Aloko, S. and Oguntoye, O.S., 2019. Wild vegetable Rumex acetosa Linn.: its ethnobotany, pharmacology and phytochemistry–a review. South African Journal of Botany, 125, pp.149-160.
Rumex nepalensis Spring Abuj Polygonaceae Herb flavonoids, phenols, anthraquinones, naphthalenes, saponins, cardiac glycosides, stilbeniods, terpenes, sterols, tannins, steroids, and reducing sugars secondary metabolites have antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-plasmodial, and wound healing activities
Rumex patientia L. Jungli abij Jungli abij Herb tannins and anthraquinone glycosides  the dried roots of Rumex patientia L. (Polygonaceae) have been used as purgative, constipate, depurative and tonic in Turkish traditional medicine Rumex patientia L. Demirezer, L.Ö., Kuruüzüm-Uz, A., Bergere, I., Schiewe, H.J. and Zeeck, A., 2001. The structures of antioxidant and cytotoxic agents from natural source: anthraquinones and tannins from roots of Rumex patientia. Phytochemistry, 58(8), pp.1213-1217.
Salix wallichiana Andrs. Danthiveer Salicaceae Tree Decoction of leaves is used to wash the feet and lower portion of legs to cure fever and general body pain. Salix wallichiana Andrs. Malik, A.H., Khuroo, A.A., Dar, G.H. and Khan, Z.S., 2011. Ethnomedicinal uses of some plants in the Kashmir Himalaya.
Salvia hians Himalayan Blue Sage  Lamiaceae  Herb new red-colored ortho diterpenoid quinone, 17-dihydroxytanshinone II, along with two known compounds tanshinone II and ß-sitosterol, has been isolated from the roots of the Himalayan herb Salvia hians Colds, Coughs, Anxiety Salvia hians Khetwal, K.S., Pathak, R.P., Vashisht, A. and Pant, N., 1992. Constituents of high altitude himalayan herbs, part V. A new diterpenoid quinone from Salvia hians. Journal of natural products, 55(7), pp.947-949. Singh, G. and Rawat, G.S., 2011. Ethnomedicinal survey of Kedarnath wildlife sanctuary in Western Himalaya, India. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences, 1(1), pp.35-46.
Salvia moorcroftiana Wall.ex Benth. Shollar Lamiaceae Herb

Oxygenated monoterpenes, Oxygenated sesquiterpenes, (Z)-b-
Ocimene, Sabinene, β-Caryophyllene, Monoterpene

hydrocarbons, (Z)-b-Ocimene (Rather et al., 2011)

Boils, Wounds, Throat swelling, Chest diseases, Headache, Stomach pain, Cough, Dysentery, Haemorrhoids, Joint pain Salvia moorcroftiana Wall.ex Benth., Rather, M.A., Dar, B.A., Bhat, K.A., Shawl, A.S., Qurishi, M.A., Dar, M.Y., et al., 2011. Mono–sesquiterpenoid composition in the leaves and flowers of Salvia moorcroftiana Wall ex Benth. growing wild in Kashmir, India. Journal of Essential Oil Research 23, 21–25.
Salvia sclarea L. Budertunde Lamiaceae Herb

Linalyl acetate, Linalool, α-Terpineol, α-Pinene, 1.8-Cineole,
Limonene, β-Caryophyllene, β-Terpineol (Džamić et al., 2008)

Burns, Wounds Salvia sclarea L., Džamić, A., Soković, M., Ristić, M., Grujić-Jovanović, S., Vukojević, J., Marin, P.D., 2008. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Salvia sclarea (Lamiaceae) essential oil. Archives of Biological Sciences 60, 233–237.
Sambucus wightianaWall. ex Wt. & Arn. Gandula Sambucaceae Herb anti-proliferative activity Sambucus wightianaWall. ex Wt. & Arn. Mir, M.A., Dar, Z., Mani, P. and andMV Rao, W.B., 2018. In-vitro anti-proliferative activity of Sambucus wightiana. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 7(3), pp.3282-3283.
Saussurea albescens Pink Saw-Wort Asteraceae Herb Rhein, Emodin, Aloe-emodin, Physcion, Chrysophamol, Rhaponticin, Rhapontigenin, Tannins, Sennosides, Catechins, Gallic acid, Cinnaminic acid (Tayade et al., 2012) Water extract of root is used aginst skin eruptions Saussurea albescens LONE, M.A., Shrivastava, P.N., Saxena, R.C. and LONE, M.A., 2009. Survey of ethnomedicinal plants of Lolab valley of Kashmir for skin diseases. Biosciences, Biotechnology Research Asia, 6(1), pp.355-358.
Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipschitz Kouth, Beare, Minar Asteraceae Herb

Costunolide, Dehydrocostus lactone, Cynaropicrin,
Lappadilactone, Germacrenes, 4α,4β Methox-ydehydrocostus

lactone, Saussureal, Saussuramines A-E, (−)-massoniresinol 4-O-
β-D-glucopyranoside (Madhuri et al., 2012)

Bitter  rhizome  powder  is  useful  to  treat joints pain, back pain, sole ulcers, dysentery and fever. Joint pain, Asthma, Cardiac stimulant, Cholera, Dysentery, Fever, Headache, Kidney stone, Menstrual irregularities, Rheumatism. Extracts obtained by crushing of roots are mixed with edible oil and the resulting paste is applied for two to three months regularly on weekly basis to cure arthritis. Saussurea costus (Falc.) Madhuri, K., Elango, K., Ponnusankar, S., 2012. Saussurea lappa (Kuth root), review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine 12, 1–9.
Saussurea heteromalla Kaliziri Asteraceae Herb detailed experimentation was performed to ascertain the optimal time-point for assessing the anti-inflammatory effects of chlorojanerin
Saussurea lappa (Decne.) Sch.Bip. Kouth, Beare, Minar Asteraceae Herb

Costunolide, Dehydrocostus lactone, Cynaropicrin,
Lappadilactone, Germacrenes, 4α,4β Methox-ydehydrocostus

lactone, Saussureal, Saussuramines A-E, (−)-massoniresinol 4-O-
β-D-glucopyranoside (Madhuri et al., 2012)

Bitter  rhizome  powder  is  useful  to  treat joints pain, back pain, sole ulcers, dysentery and fever. Joint pain, Asthma, Cardiac stimulant, Cholera, Dysentery, Fever, Headache, Kidney stone, Menstrual irregularities, Rheumatism. Extracts obtained by crushing of roots are mixed with edible oil and the resulting paste is applied for two to three months regularly on weekly basis to cure arthritis. Saussurea lappa (Decne.) Sch.Bip.

Madhuri, K., Elango, K., Ponnusankar, S., 2012. Saussurea lappa (Kuth root), review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine 12, 1–9.

Chen, H.C., Chou, C.K., Lee, S.D., Wang, J.C. and Yeh, S.F., 1995. Active compounds from Saussurea lappa Clarks that suppress hepatitis B virus surface antigen gene expression in human hepatoma cells. Antiviral Research, 27(1-2), pp.99-109.

Saussurea roylei. Royle's Saw-Wort Asteraceae Herb
Saussurea sacra Edgew. Phen Kamal, Jhoog Padshah Asteraceae Herb

Eicosapentaenoic acid methyl ester, Octadecatrien-1-ol,
Caryophyllene oxide, Cedren-13-ol, Verrucarol (Sandhyavali
et al., 2011)

Gynaecological disorders, Male sterility Saussurea sacra Edgew. Sandhyavali, M.S., Sundari, P.S., Bhavikatti, P., 2011. Isolation and chemical characterization of essential oil of Saussurea simpsoniana. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 1, 239–242.
Saussurea simpsoniana (Fielding & Gardner) Lipsch. Phen Kamal, Jhoog Padshah Asteraceae Herb

Eicosapentaenoic acid methyl ester, Octadecatrien-1-ol,
Caryophyllene oxide, Cedren-13-ol, Verrucarol (Sandhyavali
et al., 2011)

Gynaecological disorders, Male sterility . Sandhyavali, M.S., Sundari, P.S., Bhavikatti, P., 2011. Isolation and chemical characterization of essential oil of Saussurea simpsoniana. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 1, 239–242.
Saxifraga lychnitis Saxifragaceae Herb Bodyache, Fever, Headache. Wounds in cattle. Saxifraga lychnitis Zhang, Z., 2013. Phylogenetic studies in the genus Saxifraga (Saxifragaceae) (Doctoral dissertation, University of Leicester).
Saxifraga sibirica Siberian Saxifrage Saxifragaceae Herb Back pain treatments Saxifraga sibirica Zhang, Z., 2013. Phylogenetic studies in the genus Saxifraga (Saxifragaceae) (Doctoral dissertation, University of Leicester).
Scutellaria linearis Narrow-Leaved Skullcap Lamiaceae Herb Chrysin, Chrysin,  Lupulin A, Lupulin B, Lupulin C, Lupulin D antitumor and antivirus. Scutellaria linearis Shang, X., He, X., He, X., Li, M., Zhang, R., Fan, P., Zhang, Q. and Jia, Z., 2010. The genus Scutellaria an ethnopharmacological and phytochemical review. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 128(2), pp.279-313.
Sedum ewersii Pink Sedum Crassulaceae Herb Phenols, phenolic, amino, and other carboxylic acids, alkaloids, carbohydrates and polysaccharides, hydrolyzed and condensed tanning agents, and anthocyans The plant is crushed and applied on forhead to provide cooling and soothing effect. This plant is given to milch cattle to increase milk production. Sedum ewersii Korul'kin, D.Y., 2001. Chemical composition of certain Sedum species of Kazakhstan. Chemistry of natural compounds, 37(3), pp.219-223.
Sedum rhodiala DC Hasbi Jund Crassulaceae Herb salidroside, rosarin, rosavin and rosin heal wounds and relieve pain in cattle. Sedum rhodiala DC Marchev, A.S., Aneva, I.Y., Koycheva, I.K. and Georgiev, M.I., 2017. Phytochemical variations of Rhodiola rosea L. wild-grown in Bulgaria. Phytochemistry Letters, 20, pp.386-390.
Senecio graciliflorus (Wall.) DC. Baggu, Phagu Asteraceae Herb

α-Pinene, cis-Ocimene, Trimethylcyclohexane, β-Pinene, 1-Ethyl-
2-methylcyclopentane, Trans-7-methyl-3-octene, Sabinene,

Limonene, Phellandrene, cis-Ocimene, trans-Ocimene, Octenyl
acetate, 5-Undecen-3-yne, 1-Dodecyne, Neryl acetate,
Caryophyllene, Curcumene, Valencene, Farnesene Caryophyllene
oxide (Lone et al., 2014)

Skin irritations Senecio graciliflorus (Wall.) DC.,

(Lone et al., 2014)

Lone, S.H., Bhat, K.A., Bhat, H.M., Majeed, R., Anand, R., Hamid, A. and Khuroo, M.A., 2014. Essential oil composition of Senecio graciliflorus DC: Comparative analysis of different parts and evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Phytomedicine, 21(6), pp.919-925.

Senecio jacquemontianus Benth. Khalar Asteraceae Herb
Silene nigrescens. Caryophyllaceae Herb saponins, phyroecdysteroids, benzenoids, phenyl propanoids and nitrogen containing compounds it is used to protect from cold, cures hair diseases, dandruffs and lice  Silene nigrescens. Rawat, S.C.D., 2015. Medicinal plants of the family Caryophyllaceae: A. tuberculosis, 47, p.56.
Silene vulgaris Garcke Takla Caryophyllaceae Herb The result of the phytochemical analysis of S. vulgaris leaves revealed the presence of ortho diphenols, catechins, phenolics, flavonoids, saponins, coumarins and tannins Plant possess antioxidant activity. Silene vulgaris Garcke Smahane, B., Dalila, B., El Mansouri Latifa, N.A., El Youbi, H. and Amal, D.A., 2015. Phytochemical Studies, Antioxidant Activity and Protective Effect on DNA Damage and Deoxyribose of Silene Vulgaris Extract from Morocco. Int J of Pharma and Phyto Res, 7, pp.1172-1178.
Skimmia anquetilia N.P.Taylor & Airy Shaw Wangontar, Ganpatre Rutaceae Shrub S. anquetilia had different secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, saponins and carbohydrates S. anquetilia possess significant anti-inflammatory activity in HRBC membrane stabilization test and carrageenan induced paw edema in rats Skimmia anquetilia  N.P.Taylor & Airy Shaw Kumar, V., Bhat, Z.A., Kumar, D., Khan, N.A. and Chashoo, I.A., 2012. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory potential of leaf extracts of Skimmia anquetilia. Asian Pacific journal of tropical biomedicine, 2(8), pp.627-630.
Skimmia arborescens NP Taylor Naer Rutaceae Shrub Two antifungal compounds ulopterol (a coumarin) and a quinolone alkaloid 4-Methoxy-l-methyl-3-(2'-S-hydroxy-3'-ene-butyl)-2-quinolon Antimicrobial activity Skimmia arborescens NP Taylor Zuo, G.Y., Zhang, X.J., Yang, C.X., Han, J., Wang, G.C. and Bian, Z.Q., 2012. Evaluation of traditional Chinese medicinal plants for anti-MRSA activity with reference to the treatment record of infectious diseases. Molecules, 17(3), pp.2955-2967.
Solanum nigrum Black nightshade Solanaceae Herb Hexane, benzene extracts showed the presence of saponin, phytosterols, tanins and fixed oils and fats. The ethanolic and aqueous extracts showed the presence of carbohydrates, coumarins, phytosterols and flavonoids. It had been studyed that the berries of S. nigrum having significant anti-inflammatory and anti-convulsant activity, the flavonoids present in the berries might be a responsible active constituent for this activity. Solanum nigrum Atanu, F.O., Ebiloma, U.G. and Ajayi, E.I., 2011. A review of the pharmacological aspects of Solanum nigrum Linn. Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 6(1), pp.1-8.
Solanum tuberosum L. Alua, Aaloo, Potato Solanaceae Herb Potato contains Phenolic acids, anthocyanin, flavonoids, vitamin B6, vitamin B3, pantothenic acid, potassium, manganese, phosphorous; copper and fibres Antioxidant, anticancer, antiallergy, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiobesity, anti-ulcer activity  Solanum tuberosum L. Gnanasekaran, C.G. and Basalingappa, K.M., 2018. Solanum tuberosum L: Botanical, Phytochemical, pharmacological and Nutritional significance. International journal of Phytomedicine, pp.115-124.
Solenanthus circinnatus Rounded Solenanthus Boraginaceae Herb Flavonols, Saponins, Phenyl propanoids, Flavonoids the ethanol extract of the roots of the plant produced an antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effect when assessed in rat models of nociception Solenanthus circinnatus Jahromi, M.A., Jamshidzadeh, A. and Sokooti, S., 2020. Comparative Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of Solenanthus circinatus Ledeb. Root Extract and Fractions in Rat Models of Pain. Trends in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 6(3).
Solidago virgaurea Linn. Woundwort Asteraceae Herb Its main chemical constituents are flavonoids (mainly derived from quercetin and kaempferol), C6-C1 and C6-C3 compounds, terpenes (mostly from the essential oil), and a large number of saponin molecules (mainly virgaureasaponins and solidagosaponins).  antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, spasmolitic, antihypertensive, diuretic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasite, cytotoxic and antitumor, antimutagenic, antiadipogenic, antidiabetic, cardioprotective, and antisenescence.  Solidago virgaurea Linn. Fursenco, C., Calalb, T., Uncu, L., Dinu, M. and Ancuceanu, R., 2020. Solidago virgaurea L.: a review of its ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities. Biomolecules, 10(12), p.1619.
Sonchus arvensis L. Dudh Kandij Asteraceae Herb

Palmitic acid, β-Sitosterol, Daucosterol, Quercetin, Apigenin-7-O-
β-glucopyranoside, Luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, Quercetin-
3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, Rutin (Jiang et al., 2009)

Boils, Wounds Sonchus arvensis L.,  Jiang, L., Yao, Q.Q., Xie, Y.Y., 2009. Study on chemical constituents of Sonchus arvensis L. Food and Drug 11, 27–29.
Sonchus oleraceus L. Dudije Asteraceae Herb

Loliolide, 15-O- β −glucopyranosyl-11 β, Dihydrourospermal A,
Ursolic acid, Lupeol, β-Sitosterol- 3-O-glucopyranoside
(Elkhayat, 2009)

Jaundice Sonchus oleraceus L., Elkhayat, E.S., 2009. Cytotoxic and antibacterial constituents from the roots of Sonchus oleraceus L. growing in Egypt. Pharmaceutical Magazine 5, 324–328.
Spiranthes sinensis Chinese spiranthes Orchidaceae Herb tetrahydrofurylhydroxypyran-2-one, megastigmane glucoside, 2-isobutyltartrate benzyl ester glucoside and bibenzyl It has been used as a crude drug in the treatments of fever, cough, hemoptysis, vertigo and low back pain Spiranthes sinensis Yan, Y., Wu, C., Zhou, H., Feng, X. and Li, Y.F., 2019. Secondary metabolites from Spiranthes sinensis (Orchidaceae). Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 86, p.103910.
Stellaria media L. Losdhi Caryophyllaceae Herb Alkaloids, Anthracene glycosides, Cardiac glycosides The plant is reported to be useful in inflammations of the digestive, renal, respiratory and reproductive tracts Stellaria media L. Arora, D. and Sharma, A., 2012. Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical Studies of Stellaria media Linn. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 4(5), p.1819.
Swertia lahulensis A. Kerner Tikta, Zatik, Sarad Jaddi Gentianaceae Herb

1-Glycosylloxy-3-hydroxy, 5,8, dimethoxyxanthone; 1,8-
Dihydroxy,3,5 dimethoxyxanthone; 1,8-Dihydroxy,3
dimethoxyxanthone; 1,3-Dihydroxy,5,8 dimethoxyxanthone 2-

hydroxy dimethlterephthalate; Swertialactone C, D; 3β-
hydroxylup-13 (18)-ene; 3β-hydroxylup-12-ene-28-oic acid;

Ursolic acid (Negi et al., 2011)

Bodyache, Fever, Headache Negi, J.S., Singh, P., Rawat, B., 2011. Chemical constituents and biological importance of Swertia a review. Current Research in Chemistry 3, 1–15.
Swertia obtusipetala Gruning Tikta, Zatik, Sarad Jaddi Gentianaceae Herb

1-Glycosylloxy-3-hydroxy, 5,8, dimethoxyxanthone; 1,8-
Dihydroxy,3,5 dimethoxyxanthone; 1,8-Dihydroxy,3
dimethoxyxanthone; 1,3-Dihydroxy,5,8 dimethoxyxanthone 2-

hydroxy dimethlterephthalate; Swertialactone C, D; 3β-
hydroxylup-13 (18)-ene; 3β-hydroxylup-12-ene-28-oic acid;

Ursolic acid (Negi et al., 2011)

Bodyache, Fever, Headache Negi, J.S., Singh, P., Rawat, B., 2011. Chemical constituents and biological importance of Swertia a review. Current Research in Chemistry 3, 1–15.
Swertia petiolata Royle Tikta, Zatik, Sarad Jaddi Gentianaceae Herb

1-Glycosylloxy-3-hydroxy, 5,8, dimethoxyxanthone; 1,8-
Dihydroxy,3,5 dimethoxyxanthone; 1,8-Dihydroxy,3
dimethoxyxanthone; 1,3-Dihydroxy,5,8 dimethoxyxanthone 2-

hydroxy dimethlterephthalate; Swertialactone C, D; 3β-
hydroxylup-13 (18)-ene; 3β-hydroxylup-12-ene-28-oic acid;

Ursolic acid (Negi et al., 2011)

Bodyache, Fever, Headache Swertia petiolata Royle Negi, J.S., Singh, P., Rawat, B., 2011. Chemical constituents and biological importance of Swertia a review. Current Research in Chemistry 3, 1–15.
Tagetes minuta L. Jangli jafar Asteraceae Herb

Limonene, cis−Ocimene, Dihydrotagetone, trans and
cis−Tagetone, trans and cis−Tagetenone, Terpinolene,
Carvacrol, Carvone, β-Caryophyllene, Germacrene D (Vázquez
et al., 2011)

Fever, Bronchial diseases Tagetes minuta L., Vázquez, A.M., Demmel, G.I., Criado, S.G., Aimar, M.L., Cantero, J.J., Rossi, L.I., et al., 2011. Phytochemistry of Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae) from Cárdoba, Argentina, Comparative study between essential oil and HS–SPME analyses. Bol Latinoamer Caribe Plant Med Aromat 10, 351–362.
Tanacetum dolichophyllum (Kitam.) Kitam. Liddguggli Asteraceae Herb

cis-Lanceol, β-Pinene, (E)-β-Farnesene, α-Bisabolol, β-Eudesmol,
Terpinen-4-ol, Neryl acetate (Haider et al., 2011)

Indigestion, Stomach problems, Intestinal worms Tanacetum dolichophyllum Haider, S.Z., Lohani, H., Sah, S., Chauhan, N.K., Tiwari, S.C., 2011. Variation in the constituents of Tanacetum dolichophyllum (Kitam.) Kitam: from different locations of Uttarakhand Himalaya (India). Journal of Essential Oil Research 23, 48–51.
Tanacetum gracile Hook. f. & Thomson Khamchu, Thorchokma Asteraceae Herb

Lavendulol; 1,8-Cineole, (Z)-β–Ocimene, α −Bisabolol,
Chamazulene, α −Phellandrene (Joshi et al., 2016)

Intestinal worms, Fever Tanacetum gracile Hook. Joshi, R.K., Satyal, P., Setzer, W.N., 2016. Himalayan aromatic medicinal plants: a review of their ethnopharmacology, volatile phytochemistry, and biological activities. Medicines 3, 6.
Taraxacum officinale Weber ex Wiggers Hand Asteraceae Herb sesquiterpenes including the eudesmanolides tetrahydroridentin B and taraxacolide-O-β-glucopyranoside, the guaianolides 11β,13-dihydrolactucin and ixerin D, and three germacranolide esters, taraxinic acid  β-glucopyranoside, its 11,13-dihydro-derivative and ainslioside were identified anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and anti-oxidative activities Taraxacum officinale Weber ex Wiggers Schütz, K., Carle, R. and Schieber, A., 2006. Taraxacum—a review on its phytochemical and pharmacological profile. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 107(3), pp.313-323.
Taxus baccata Linn. Postul Taxaceae Tree Four taxoids (taxusin, baccatin VI, baccatin III and 1β-hydroxybaccatin I) and five lignans (lariciresinol, taxiresinol, 3 -demethylisolariciresinol-9 -hydroxyisopropylether, isolariciresinol and 3-demethylisolariciresinol) were isolated from the heartwood of Taxus baccata Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity Taxus baccata Linn. Küpeli, E., Erdemoğlu, N., Yeşilada, E. and Şener, B., 2003. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of taxoids and lignans from the heartwood of Taxus baccata L. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 89(2-3), pp.265-270.
Thymus linearis Benth.ex Benth. Chok dawa Lamiaceae Herb

Thymol, Carvacrol, Terpinene, Geraniol, Geranyl acetate, Thymyl
acetate, p-Cymene, Terpinene (Joshi et al., 2016)

Swellings Thymus linearis Benth.ex Benth., Joshi, R.K., Satyal, P., Setzer, W.N., 2016. Himalayan aromatic medicinal plants: a review of their ethnopharmacology, volatile phytochemistry, and biological activities. Medicines 3, 6.
Thymus serphyllum L. Thumbrek, Jawand, Javen Lamiaceae Herb

Thymol; 1,8-Cineole, Terpinene, p-Cymene, Thymol methyl ether
(Joshi et al., 2016)

Asthma, Baldness, Blood purifier, Bronchitis,
Indigestion, Eye diseases, Laxative, Skin
eruptions, Stomach problems, Toothache

Thymus serpyllum L., Joshi, R.K., Satyal, P., Setzer, W.N., 2016. Himalayan aromatic medicinal plants: a review of their ethnopharmacology, volatile phytochemistry, and biological activities. Medicines 3, 6.
Tragopogon pratensis L. Tharnoo Asteraceae Herb

Gallic acid, Ferulic acid, RutinResveratrol, Sinapic acid, Caffeic

acid (Kucekova et al., 2011)

Gout, Rheumatism, Liver diseases Tragopogon pratensis L., (Kucekova et al., 2011)
Trifolium pratense L. Burseem, Batakpanj, Lalchopati Fabaceae Herb biochanin A and formononetin are present as glycosides in red clover. More recently, isoflavones, their glycosides, their glycosides malonates and their acetyl glycosides were determined in red clover extracts using chromatographic and spectrometric methods It is used as expectorants, analgesics, antiseptics and against rheumatism aches Trifolium pratense L. Sabudak, T. and Guler, N., 2009. Trifolium L.–a review on its phytochemical and pharmacological profile. Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives, 23(3), pp.439-446.
Trifolium repens L. Batak-Panj Fabaceae Herb acids, phenol, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, esters and hydrocarbons. It is used as expectorants, analgesics, antiseptics and against rheumatism aches Trifolium repens L. Sabudak, T. and Guler, N., 2009. Trifolium L.–a review on its phytochemical and pharmacological profile. Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives, 23(3), pp.439-446.
Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Methi, Meth Fabaceae Herb

Kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, Kaempferol 7-O-glucoside,
Kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnosyl (1 → 2) β-D-xyloside, Kaempferol
7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1–4) β-D-glucopyranoside, Kaempferol
3-O-β-glucosyl (1 → 2) (6′-O-acetyl)-β-D-galactoside (Omezzine
et al., 2014)

Throat infections Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Omezzine, F., Bouaziz, M., Daami-Remadi, M., Simmonds, M.S., Haouala, R., 2014. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. varied with plant ploidy level and developmental stage. Arabian Journal of Chemistry 10 (2), S3622–S3631.
Trillium govanianum Wall.

Surmagand,
Sheethkar

Liliaceae Herb

Brassoside, Diosgenin, Govanoside A, Pennogenin E, Polyphyllin
VII, Sarsasapogenin, Trillarin, Pennogenin, Piosgenin (Khan
et al., 2016)

Burns, Wounds Trillium govanianum Khan, K.M., Nahar, L., Al-Groshi, A., Zavoianu, A.G., Evans, A., Dempster, N.M., et al., 2016. Cytotoxicity of the roots of Trillium govanianum against breast (MCF7) liver (HepG2), lung (A549) and urinary bladder (EJ138) carcinoma cells. Phytotherapy Research 30, 1716–1720.
Triticum aestivum L.
Trollius acaulis Dwarf Globe Flower Ranunculaceae Herb Flavonoids, mainly C-glycosides, Trollius acaulis Witkowska‐Banaszczak, E., 2015. The genus Trollius—review of pharmacological and chemical research. Phytotherapy Research, 29(4), pp.475-500.
Tulipa stellata Lady Tulip Liliaceae Herb
Tussilago farfara L. Watpan Asteraceae Herb

Methyl 3, 4-O-dicaffeoylquinate; Methyl 3, 5-O-
dicaffeoylquinate; Methyl 4, 5-O-dicaffeoylquinate (3), 3, 5-O-
dicaffeoylquinic acid; Methyl 3-O-caffeoylquinate, 3-O-
caffeoylquinic acid; Hyperoside; Rutin; Kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-
glucopyranoside; Quercetin; Kaempferol (Chanaj-Kaczmarek

et al., 2013)

Asthma, Bronchitis Tussilago farfara L.,

Chanaj-Kaczmarek, J., Wojcińska, M., Matławska, I., 2013. Phenolics in the Tussilago farfara leaves. Herba Polonica 59, 35–43.

Urtica dioica L. Urtica dioica L.
Valeriana hardwickii Wall.

Mushkbala,
Budjeeth

Valerianaceae Herb

Bornyl acetate, Cuparene, Valeracetate, Methyl linoleate,
Epoxysesquithujene, Cedrene, 8-epikessyl glycol diacetate,
Kessanyl acetate, Gurjunene (Joshi et al., 2016)

Abdominal disorders, Intestinal pain, Chronic
disorders

Valeriana hardwickii Wall., Joshi, R.K., Satyal, P., Setzer, W.N., 2016. Himalayan aromatic medicinal plants: a review of their ethnopharmacology, volatile phytochemistry, and biological activities. Medicines 3, 6.
Valeriana jatamansii Jones Mushkbala Valerianaceae Herb

Maaliol, Viridiflorol, β −Gurjunene, Seychellene, α-Santalene,
Seychellene, Patchouli alcohol, α −Bulnesene, Azulene, α
−Guaiene, β-Caryophyllene, Kanokonyl acetate γ −Curcumene,
ar-Curcumene, 3-Methylvaleric acid (Joshi et al., 2016)

Abdominal pain, Urine infections, Diarrhoea,
Fever, Gynaecological disorders, Heart diseases,
Nervous disorder, Wounds

Valeriana jatamansii Jones Joshi, R.K., Satyal, P., Setzer, W.N., 2016. Himalayan aromatic medicinal plants: a review of their ethnopharmacology, volatile phytochemistry, and biological activities. Medicines 3, 6.
Valeriana pyrolifolia Kashmir Valerian Valerianaceae Herb Valeriana pyrolifolia

Valeriana wallichii
DC.

Mushkbala Valerianaceae Herb

Maaliol, Viridiflorol, β −Gurjunene, Seychellene, α-Santalene,
Seychellene, Patchouli alcohol, α −Bulnesene, Azulene, α
−Guaiene, β-Caryophyllene, Kanokonyl acetate γ −Curcumene,
ar-Curcumene, 3-Methylvaleric acid (Joshi et al., 2016)

Abdominal pain, Urine infections, Diarrhoea,
Fever, Gynaecological disorders, Heart diseases,
Nervous disorder, Wounds

Joshi, R.K., Satyal, P., Setzer, W.N., 2016. Himalayan aromatic medicinal plants: a review of their ethnopharmacology, volatile phytochemistry, and biological activities. Medicines 3, 6.
Verbascum thapsus L. Wan-tamook Wan-tamook Herb iridoid glycosides, three iridoid, one phenylethyl glycoside, two sesquiterpenes, one diterpene, and one biflavonoid It is used to treat respiratory disorders such as bronchitis, dry coughs, tuberculosis and asthma in Turkish traditional medicine Verbascum thapsus L. Hussain, H., Aziz, S., Miana, G.A., Ahmad, V.U., Anwar, S. and Ahmed, I., 2009. Minor chemical constituents of Verbascum thapsus. Biochemical systematics and ecology, 37(2), pp.124-126. Süntar, I., Tatlı, I.I., Akkol, E.K., Keleş, H., Kahraman, Ç. and Akdemir, Z., 2010. An ethnopharmacological study on Verbascum species: from conventional wound healing use to scientific verification. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 132(2), pp.408-413.
Verbena officinalis L. Hath mool Verbenaceae Herb

β-sitosterol, Ursolic acid, Oleanolic acid, 3-Epiursolic acid, 3-
Epioleanolic acid (Deepak and Handa, 2000)

Indigestion, Vomiting Verbena officinalis L., (Deepak and Handa, 2000)
Viburnum grandiflorum Wall.ex DC. Kul mach Caprifoliaceae Herb

Lupeol, Oleanolic acid, Ursolic acid, β-Sitosterol, Butilinic acid
Butilin, α-Amyrin, Germanicol (Awan et al., 2013)

Cough, Eye ailments, Inflammations Viburnum grandiflorum Awan, Z.I., Habib-ur-Rehman, K.A., Minhas, F.A., 2013. A new lupan type triterpene butilinol from Viburnum grandiflorum. Journal of Applied Chemistry 5, 58–66.
Vigna mungo L. Mah Dal Paplionaceae Herb The toxic compounds consist of some flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, cyanogenic compounds, phytate and trypsin inhibitors. Vigna mungo L. Kakati, P., Deka, S.C., Kotoki, D. and Saikia, S., 2010. Effect of traditional methods of processing on the nutrient contents and some antinutritional factors in newly developed cultivars of green gram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilezek] and black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] of Assam, India. International Food Research Journal, 17(2), pp.377-384.Gohel, M.K., Sheth, N.R. and Dudhrejiya, A.V., 2011. Anticonvulsant activity of extract from the seeds of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper. Journal of Pharmacy Research, 4(6), pp.1943-1945.
Viola indica  Indian Violet Violaceae Herb Viola indica
Viola odorata L. Banafsha Violaceae Herb

Butyl-2-ethylhexylphthalate; 5,6,7,7a-Tetrahydro-4,4,7a-
trimethyl-2(4H)-benzofuranone, cis-3-Hexenol, −Pinene, β

−Pinene, Salicylaldehyde, 1,8-Cineole (Akhbari et al., 2012)

Cough, Cold, Throat infection, Swellings, Chest
congestion, Hoarseness of voice, Muscular pains,
Headache

Viola odorata L., Akhbari, M., Batooli, H., Kashi, F.J., 2012. Composition of essential oil and biological activity of extracts of Viola odorata L. from central Iran. Natural Product Research 26, 802–809.
Viola serpens Banafsha Violaceae Herb

alkaloids, glycosides, ferric chloride (phenols and tannins), saponins, triterpenoids, and avonoids

Plant is used to cure jaundice, lung and blood disorders, febrifuge, potent aphrodisiac and diaphoretic effects, headache, cough, cold, dermatitis, kidney diseases, liver, lungs and urinary infections

Viola sylvatica Fries Banafsha Violaceae Herb Viola sylvatica Fries
Viscum album Linn. Banada Viscaceae Herb β-sitosterol, caffeic acid, dimethoxyflavone, eleutheroside, flavonoides, glycoproteins, kaemferol, lectin, oleanic acid, pectin, quercetin, syringin, triterpene, ursolic acid Immuno-regulatory, diuretic, antibacterial, antiviral, inhibits cell proliferation, diuretic, anti-inflammatory as well as immunostimulant effects.The extract produces antihypertensive and antioxidant effect Viscum album Linn. Kusi, M., Shrestha, K. and Malla, R., 2015. Study on phytochemical, antibacterial, antioxidant and toxicity profile of Viscum album Linn associated with Acacia catechu. Nepal Journal of Biotechnology, 3(1), pp.60-65.
Vitis vinifera L. Daech Vitaceae Herb Phenolic acids Hydroxybenzoic acids Gallic acid, Quercetin, Quercetin-3-O-galactoside, Quercetin-3-O-glucoside Fresh leaves are tightly tied with muslin cloth on the skin rashes, sores, eruptions. Vitis vinifera L. Gouvinhas, I., Queiroz, M., Rodrigues, M. and Barros, A.I., 2019. Evaluation of the Phytochemistry and biological activity of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Stems: Toward a Sustainable Winery Industry. Polyphenols in Plants, pp.381-394. Orhan, N., Aslan, M., Orhan, D.D., Ergun, F. and Yeşilada, E., 2006. In-vivo assessment of antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera) in diabetic rats. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 108(2), pp.280-286.
Wahlenbergia rotundifolia (Benth.) A.DC. Tunde Jaeid Campanulaceae Herb

Cordifoliketone A, Cordifoliketone B, Coniferaldehyde,
Sinapinaldehyde, Coniferoside, Isoconiferin, Nervolan B-C,
Dillapiole (He et al., 2015)

Asthma, General weakness. Wahlenbergia rotundifolia (Benth.) A.DC. He, J.Y., Ma, N., Zhu, S., Komatsu, K., Li, Z.Y., Fu, W.M., 2015. The genus Codonopsis (Campanulaceae): A review of phytochemistry: bioactivity and quality control. Journal of Natural Medicines 69, 1–21.
Wayne Myers
Xanthoxylum armatum Winged prickly ash Rutaceae Shrub Quercetin, Vitamin C, Baicalein Z.armatum has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential and can be a source of significant therapeutic agent Xanthoxylum armatum Alam, F. and Ashraf, M., 2019. Phenolic contents, elemental analysis, antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory activities of Zanthoxylum armatum DC fruit, leaves and bark extracts. Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 32(4).
Zizyphus mauritiana Lam. Indian jujube Rhamnaceae Tree quercetin-3-O- (2-pentosyl)-rhamnoside was most abundant. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities Zizyphus mauritiana Lam. Rathore, S.K., Bhatt, S.H.A.S.H.A.N.K., Dhyani, S. and Jain, A., 2012. Preliminary phytochemical screening of medicinal plant Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. fruits. International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research, 4(3), pp.160-162.


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